By Samuel Elmo Martin
Have you questioned a couple of jap sentence your textbook fails to provide an explanation for? Do you are feeling uncertain in regards to the use of «wa,» «ga,» and «mo?» Or what the foundations and meanings of phrases of their literary kinds are? if this is the case, you can find your solutions in A Reference Grammar of eastern, the main accomplished and trustworthy reference resource to be had. With an intensive 105-page index, the reader will quick locate causes for debris corresponding to wa, ga, mo, ni, and de tricky nouns reminiscent of mono, koto, tokoro, wake, hazu, and tame sentence extensions reminiscent of ne, yo, sa, yara, and nari verb tenses, literary kinds, adverse varieties - in brief, every thing concerned about the japanese language. For the intense scholar, this publication is critical for clearing up the ambiguities of complicated jap sentences.
«A actually enormous paintings. the best reference grammars ever written approximately any language.» - magazine of Asian Studies
«A wealth of data has been packed among the covers.» - Monumenta Nipponica
«By a ways the main complete reference grammar of eastern within the English language (and maybe in any language).» - magazine of Linguistics
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Extra resources for A Reference Grammar of Japanese
D irect surface-subject" of a VE R B : ( 1 ) active agent = i nitiator of a process ( including kagu 'smel ls' and mfru 'looks') . ( 2) causative agent = instigator of a process; see § 4. 1 . ) . 5a ) . 8) . 5. 2) -the maleficiary, the disobl iged, the d iscommoded , the i nconvenienced. 2) ) . (8) the cathectic object of a verb of emotion u nder the PU R E PASS I V E conversion. (9) optiona lly replacing o for the d irect object of a verb under the D ES I D E R ATI VE conversion. 2. The l ist shou ld be glanced over for future reference; unless a particular item catches his eye, the reader w ill probably wish to move on to the next section, return i ng to consult this section from time to time as he conti nues through the boo k.
G. the i nstrumental in Tennoo o pisutoru de ute ! 'Shoot the Emperor ( with a pis tol ) ! I (SA 281 7. 1 01 ab) , where pisutoru de utu '(pistol-)shoots' functions as if a simple verb. I f, as has often been suggested , we consider the spoken sentences as representations of some u nderlying "natural logic" that is the result of a sort of "predicate cal cu lus", we wil l want to consider all possible adjuncts as present in the u nderlying form of each simplex , once we have decided just which simplexes lurk beneath our surface sentence in all its spare a nd murky I I 1 .
B ut an a lternative explanation wou ld treat the const ituents of the entire sentence as more equally conjoined : the sentence [ hito ga ] Oosaka kara yogfsya de onna-no-ko 0 tureta (= turete klta) [the person ] brought a l ittle g irl by n ight train from Osaka ' attached ( by way of -te 'and') to the sentence asa no go-zi -han -goro [ kare-ra ga] koko e tuita ' [they] arrived here at 5 : 30 in the morning'. U nder this i nterpretation the overt adjuncts are in neutral order except for the switch be tween ablative and i nstrumenta l .