Advances in Image And Video Segmentation by Yu-jin Zhang

By Yu-jin Zhang

Photograph and video segmentation is among the most important projects of photo and video research: extracting details from a picture or a chain of pictures. within the final forty years, this box has skilled major development and improvement, and has ended in a digital explosion of released info. Advances in snapshot and Video Segmentation brings jointly the newest effects from researchers fascinated with state of the art paintings in photograph and video segmentation, supplying a suite of contemporary works made by way of greater than 50 specialists world wide.

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In this case it is possible to start with some initial set of uniform messages and iterate propagating messages, but these is not guaranteed to converge. With this procedure only approximate beliefs are ensured. In certain domains, it is empirically demonstrated that BP succeeds, but in principle we do not expect the algorithm to work well in graphs with loops. In template-matching problems, in which there are loops, the messages are computed as follows: ( 1) mijt + (q j ) = 1 Z ij ∑ψ qi ij (q i , q j )ψ i (q i ) ∏m k∈ N ( i ) ~ j (t ) ki (q i ) (42) ( 1) Z ij = ∑q mijt + (q i ) i where Z is a normalization factor, and (t), (t +1) are discrete time indices.

We have devoted this chapter Copyright © 2006, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. 44 Escolano & Lozano to show the details of how the optimization techniques are formally built. We have chosen some representative cases in the literature. Sometimes the algorithms presented here are not suitable for practical implementations working in real time, for instance, in a mobile robot. However, from a methodological point of view, it is very interesting to show how to formalize the problems and find acceptable solutions to them.

The interaction energy can be symmetrized as U ijsym (q i , q j ) = U ij (qi , q j ) + U ji (q j , q i ) . The shape prior if obtained from this symmetrized energy is as follows: P(Q) = sym 1 −U ( q ,q ) ∏ e ij i j Z i< j (30) In this equation Z is a normalization constant, and only i < j nodes are considered for eliminating double-counting. Copyright © 2006, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. 30 Escolano & Lozano The image data d(x),extracted from the raw greyscale image, consists of an edge map Ie(x) and an orientation map φ (x).

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