By Sascha W. Felix
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Additional info for Advances in shrimp aquaculture management
The young shrimps should be kept in a nursery pond for two to three weeks, or until they reach an average size of 25 mm. Further, raceway nurseries are now introduced in countries like USA, Malaysia and now in India, and seeds can be stocked at a very high densities (1000–3000/m3). Discussed in detail in another chapter. Transferring Fry from Nursery to Growout Ponds It is difficult to harvest shrimps or transfer from one pond to another. Transfer should be done by making them move with water flow.
0, heavy mortalities occurred (Wickens, 1976). A fall in pH may have indirect effects also, for instance, resistance of the shrimp to pathogens might be reduced. One of the most important causes of low water pH is acid soil. Acid sulfate soils are commonly overlaid by good soil which lies above the mean high water level. If the land is excavated to make the pond bottom at a level where the pond can be filled and drained using tidal fluctuation, acid sulfate conditions develop when the subsoil is exposed.
Changes in salinity should be as gradual as possible because abrupt exposure to very low salinities may lead to death. Of the important species cultured, it is generally considered that P. monodon has wider salinity tolerance. Though the optimal growth of P. merguiensis was obtained at 27 ppt, P. semisulcatus seems to require a relatively high saline water. All species of penaeid shrimps however require almost marine seawater for maturation and spawning. To protect the shrimp ponds against abrupt changes in salinity: (a) There must be a provision to exchange pond water rapidly, and whenever it is required.