By Wolfgang Demtröder
This creation to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been built over the past centuries by means of many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical aspect by means of the advent of quantum physics to the enough description of micro-particles.
It illustrates the wave version of debris via many examples and exhibits the boundaries of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its strength for spectroscopy is printed in additional aspect and specifically lasers as smooth spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.
Many examples and issues of suggestions may still set off the reader to an excessive energetic cooperation.
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Additional info for Atoms, Molecules and Photons: An Introduction to Atomic -, Molecular- and Quantum Physics
Amplifier and control feedback Tunnel current Fig. 27. Scanning tunneling microscope If a small voltage of a few volts is applied between the tip (cathode) and the surface (anode) the electrons can jump from the needle into the surface by a process called tunneling (see Sect. 3). The electric current depends exponentially on the distance between tip and surface. When the tip is scanned over the surface by piezo elements (these are ceramic cylinders that change their length when an electric voltage is applied to them), any deviation of the surface in the z-direction from the exact xy-plane results in a change of the tunnel current (Fig.
When a voltage V of several kilovolts is applied between cathode and anode, the electric ﬁeld strength at the cathode surface is V rˆ , r where r is the radius of the nearly spherical tip of the tungsten wire (Fig. 22b). With special etching techniques it is possible to fabricate tips with r < 10 nm! This means that for a moderate voltage V = 1 kV the electric ﬁeld at the surface of the tungsten tip is already E ≥ 1011 V/m. Such high electric ﬁelds exceed E= Fig. 21. Cloud chamber tracks of α particles (= He nuclei), which are emitted from a source below the lower edge of the photograph.
6). This was the ﬁrst example of a cathode ray oscilloscope. Thomson could also show that the ratio e/m was independent of the cathode material, but was about 104 times larger than that for the “Kanalstrahlen” discovered in 1886 by Eugen Goldstein (1850–1930) in a discharge tube, which ﬂy through a hole in the cathode in the opposite direction of the cathode rays (Fig. 38). 26]. − + Cathode rays = electrons R Fluorescent screen Anode Cathode Valve N S To vacuum pump Fig. 36. Schematic drawing of the experimental setup for observing cathode rays.