By Ermanno Bonucci
For the 1st time, this booklet deals a severe evaluation of the calcification means of the natural and inorganic levels of mineralized tissues concentrating on the earliest levels. It contains a methodological bankruptcy which gives the mandatory functional details for making acceptable offerings. The publication is decided to turn into a massive reference resource for the cabinets of bone densitometry labs internationally.
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Additional info for Biological Calcification: Normal and Pathological Processes in the Early Stages
The tomographic nanoscale reconstruction of 3D chemical maps is a further option. 9 Infrared Spectroscopy (IRS) Infrared spectroscopy can provide information on both the inorganic and organic components of calciﬁed matrices. The coupling of a light microscope with an IR spectrometer has allowed spectra to be recorded for distinct microscopic tissue areas whose resolution can be increased by the addition of an array detector. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) and imaging (FTIRI) have both been used to study the degree of crystallinity of bone inorganic substance (Pleshko et al.
10 Raman Microspectroscopy This is a nondestructive, vibrational technique which has been applied to the study of mineralized tissues (Carden and Morris 2000). It is based on Raman’s effect, which can be summarized as follows. An incident radiation (usually a near-infrared laser excitation) interacts with a molecule that is at its lowest vibrational state so inducing an increase in its energy level. This 32 Chapter 3 Methodology is unstable and tends to return to its initial vibrational state, in which case a photon is emitted of the same frequency as the incident one.
8 Energy Filtering Electron Microscopy (EFEM) The presence and distribution of elements in a calciﬁed tissue, and the structure and organization of crystals, can be clariﬁed using an energy ﬁltering electron microscope (EFEM) operating in an electron spectroscopic diffraction (ESD) or an electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) mode (for the spatial resolution and detection limits of the EFEM, see Grogger et al. 2003). Several modiﬁcations and new techniques have recently been suggested to increase the power, sensitivity and range of applications of the EFEM (Egerton 2003; Leapman 2003; Feng et al.