By Susannah Gardner
This e-book will consultant readers via deciding upon and fitting BitTorrent software program, downloading and enjoying BitTorrent content material, and growing and dispensing huge records like software program, audio and video through BitTorrent tos upport their own and enterprise pursuits. Interspersed during the textual content might be real-world tales from companies and people who have used the know-how successfully and legally to distribute content material, allure consumers, or release careers. To complement the chapters, the writer will create a sequence of video records to be had through BitTorrent on her site.
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3GPP 3GPP2 64QAM 8QAM 16QAM 32QAM AAS AAS AAS ACK ACL ACLR ADC ADS ADT AES AES-CCMP AGC AIFS AIP AMC AMC AMPS AM-RLC AMS ANR AoI 3rd Generation Partnership Project 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 8 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 32 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Advanced Antenna System Adaptive Antenna Steering Adaptive Antenna System Acknowledgement Access Control List Adjacent Channel Leakage Rejection Analog to Digital Converter Air Data Speed Air Data Tonnage Advanced Encryption Standard AES- CTR CBC MAC Protocol Automatic Gain Control Arbitration Inter Frame Space All IP Adaptive Modulation and Coding Adjacent Mapping of Sub-Carriers Advanced Mobile Phone Service Acknowledged Mode Radio link Control Adaptive MIMO Switching Automatic Neighbor Relation Area of Interest xlviii AP AP ARIB ARP ARPANET ARQ AS ASCA ASCII ASN ASN-GW ASP ATIS ATM AuC AWGN B BA BBS BCCH BE BER BFN BG BGP BLAST BLER BOSS BPSK BR BS BSC BSS BSS BSSID BTC BTS CA CA CAC CAMEL CAPEX CAZAC CB CBC CC CC CCA CCCH List of Abbreviations Access Point Aggregation Point Association of Radio Industries and Business (Japan) Address Resolution Protocol Advanced Research Projects Agency Automatic Repeat reQuest Access Stratum Adjacent Subcarrier Allocation American Standard Code for Information Interchange Access Service Network ASN- Gateway Application Service Provider Alliance for Telecommunications and Industry Solutions (USA) Asynchronous Transfer Mode Authentication Center Additive White Gaussian Noise Block Block ACK BroadBand Services Broadcast Channel Best Effort Bit Error Rate Beam Forming Network Block Group Border Gateway Protocol Bell Labs Layered Space Time Block Error Rate Back Ofﬁce Support System Binary Phase-Shift Keying Bandwidth Request Base Station Base Station Controller Business Support System Basic Service Set Basic Service Set ID Block Turbo Code Base Terminal Station Collision Avoidance Coordination Function Channel Access and Control Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic Capital Expenditure Constant Amplitude Zero Auto Correlation Coding Block Cipher Block Chaining Convolutional Code Chase Combining Clear Channel Assessment Common Control Channel List of Abbreviations CCD CCE CCK CCM CCSA CD CDD cdf CDM cdma2000 CEMS CEPT CERN CFI CFP CH CHAP CI CID CIDR CINR CL CN COMPASS CORE CP CPE CPS CPU CQI CRC C-RNTI CS CS CS CS CSD CSI CSMA CSN CTC CTR CTS CW CW DA DAC DARPA dBd xlix Cyclic Delay Diversity Control Channel Element Complementary Code Keying CTR with CBC-MAC China Communications Standards Association Collision Detection Cyclic Delay Diversity cumulative distribution function Code Division Multiplex code division multiple access for beyond year 2000 Conﬁguration Element Management System Conf´erence des administrations Europ´eenes des Postes et T´el´ecommunications Centre Europ´eenne pour la Recherche Nucl´eaire Control Format Indicator Contention Free Period Chase Combining Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol CRC Indicator Connection Identiﬁer Classes Inter-Domain Routing Carrier to Interference and Noise Ratio CLient Core Network named used by the Chinese GNSS Core Network Cyclic Preﬁx Customer Premises Equipment Common Part Sublayer Central Processing Unit Channel Quality Indicator Cyclic Redundancy Code Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity Customer Station Carrier Sense Convergence Sublayer Circuit Switched Cyclic Shift Delay Channel State Information Carrier Sense Multiple Access Connectivity Service Network Convolutional Turbo Code Counter Mode Clear To Send Contention Window Continuous wave Destination Address Digital to Analog Converter Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency dB in relation to dipole antenna l dBi DCCH DCD DCF DCI DCS DDC DF DFFT DFS DFT DFT-S-OFDM DHCP DiffServ DIFS DIUC DL DL DL-MAP DL-SCH DMB DNS DoA DRB DRS DRS DRX DS DS DSA DSB DSC DSCA DSL DSP DSSS DTCH DTIM DTP DTR DTS DVB-H DVB-T DVRP DwPTS E EAP EAP-TTLS EARFCN List of Abbreviations dB in relation to isotropic antenna Dedicated Control Channel Downlink Channel Descriptor Distributed Coordination Function Downlink Control Information Dynamic Channel Selection Digital Down Converter Decision Feedback Discrete Fast Fourier Transform Dynamic Frequency Selection Discrete Fourier Transform DFT- Spread- OFDM Dynamic Host Control Protocol Differentiated Services Distributed InterFrame Space Downlink IUC Downlink Downlink Downlink Map Downlink Shared Channel Digital mobile Broadcast Domain Name System Direction of Arrival Data Radio Bearer Downlink Reference Signal Demodulation Reference Signal Discontinuous Reception Downstream Distribution System Distributed System Architecture Dual Side Band Diversity Selection Combining Distributed Subcarrier Allocation Digital Subscriber Line Digital Signal Processor Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Dedicated Trafﬁc Channel Delivery Trafﬁc Indication Message Data Transfer Protocol Data Tonnage Rate Data Transfer Speed Digital Video Broadcasting- Handheld Digital Video Broadcasting- Terrestrial Distance Vector Routing Protocol Downlink Pilot Time Slot Erlang Extensible Authentication Protocol EAP- Tunneled Transport Layer Security Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number List of Abbreviations EC EDCA EDGE EDRR E-ﬁeld EGC EGP EIFS EIR EKS EMC EML eNB eNode B eNodeB EPC EPS EQM ertPS ESF ESS ETSI EUI E-UTRA E-UTRAN EVDO EVM FA FCH FDD FDM FEC FER FFSE FFT FIFO FIN FIR FSK FSTD FT FTP FUSC GALILEO GAN GBR GCB GERAN GGSN Encryption Control Enhanced Distributed Channel Access Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Enhanced Deﬁcit Round Robin Electrical ﬁeld Equal Gain Combining External Gateway Protocol Extended Inter Frame Space Equipment Identity Register Encryption Key Sequence Electro Magnetic Compatibility Element Management Layer Evolved Node Base Station Evolved Node Base Station Evolved Node Base Station Evolved Packet Core Evolved Packet System Equal Modulation Scheme enhanced real time Polling Service Extended Sub header Field Extended Service Set European Telecommunications Standard Institute Extended Unique Identiﬁer Evolved- Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Evolved- Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network Evolution Data Optimized Error Vector Magnitude Foreign Agent Frame Control Header Frequency Division Duplex Frequency Division Multiplex Forward Error Correction Frame Error Rate Fairly Shared Spectrum Efﬁciency Fast Fourier Transform First In First Out Finish Full Incremental Redundancy Frequency Shift Keying Frequency Switched Transmit Diversity Fourier Transform File Transfer Protocol Full Use of Sub-Carriers named used by the European GNSS Generic Access Network Guaranteed Bit Rate Geographic Census Bureau GSM/Edge Radio Access Network GPRS Gateway Support Node li lii GIS GLONASS GMSC GMSK GNSS GP GPRS GPS GRE GSM GSM GTP GUTI HA HARQ HARQ HCCA HCF HCS HeNB H-FDD H-ﬁeld HLR HPA HSCSD HSDPA HSPA HSPA+ HSS HSUPA HT HT GF HTM HTML HTTP I IAB IANA IBSS ICCB ICMP ICS IdCell iDFFT iDFT IEEE IETF IFDMA IFFT List of Abbreviations Geographic Information System GLObal NAvigation Sputnik System Gateway MSC Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying Global Navigation Satellite System Guard Period General Packet Radio Service Global Positioning System Generic Routing Encapsulation Global System for Mobile Communications Groupe Sp´ecial Mobile GPRS Tunneling Protocol Global Unique Terminal Identity Home Agent Hybrid ARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest HCF Controlled Channel Access Hybrid Coordination Function Header Check Sum Home eNB Half-Frequency Division Duplex Magnetic ﬁeld Home Location Register High Power Ampliﬁer High-Speed Circuit Switched Data High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Packet Data High Speed Packet Data Plus Home Subscriber Server High Speed Uplink Packet Data High Throughput HT Green Field HT Mixed Hyper Text Markup Language Hyper Text Transfer Protocol In-phase Internet Architecture Board Internet Assigned Number Authority Independent Service Set Internet Conﬁguration Control Board Internet Control Message Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement Identiﬁcation of the Cell inverse of Discrete Fast Fourier Transform inverse Discrete Fourier Transform Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Interleaved Frequency Division Multiple Access Inverse Fast Fourier Transform List of Abbreviations IFS IGMP IGP IGRP IM IMAP IMEI IMS IMSI IMT2000 InARP InfraBSS IntServ IP IPDS IPDT IPv4 IPv6 IR IRC IRNSS IS-2000 1XRTT ISI IS-IS ISM ISO ISP ITS ITU IUC IV K2D K3D KPI KPI L2TP LAC LB LD LDAP LDP LDP LDPC LEN LLC LNA LNS LPCP LPP Inter Frame Space Internet Group Message Protocol Internal Gateway Protocol Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Interference Matrix Internet Message Access Protocol International Mobile Equipment Identity IP Multimedia Subsystem International Mobile Subscriber Identity International Mobile Telecommunications for beyond year 2000 Inverse Address Resolution Protocol Infrastructure Basic Service Set Integrated Services Internet Protocol IP Data Speed IP Data Tonnage IP version 4 IP version 6 Incremental Redundancy Internet Ready Chat Indian Regional Navigation System Information System-2000 Single Carrier Radio Transmission Technology Inter Symbol Interference Intermediate System to Intermediate System Industrial, Scientiﬁc and Medical Equipment International Standards Organization Internet Service Provider Intelligent Transportation System International Telecommunication Union Interval Usage Code Initialization Vector Korowajczuk 3D propagation model Korowajczuk 2D propagation model Key Performance Indicator Key Parameter Indicator Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol Access Concentrator Long Block Linear Detector Lightweight Directory Access Protocol Label Distribution Protocol Linear Diversity Pre-coding Low-Density Parity Check Length ﬁeld Logical Link Control Low Noise Ampliﬁer Layer2 Tunneling Protocol Network Server Linear Pre-Coding and post -Coding LTE Positioning Protocol liii liv LPPD LRG LSP LSRP LTE LTE-A LTS MA MAC MAN MBGP MBMS MCC MCCH MCH MCS MDI MDIX MFLOPS MIB MIME MIMO MIPS MISO MLD MLSD MM MME MMF MNC MPDU MPLS MRC MS MSC MSDP MSDU MSSE MSTR MTCH MUD N/A NACK NAS NAT NAV NB NCP NCSA List of Abbreviations Linear Programming Detector Likelihood Receiver Generator Label Switch path Link-State Routing Protocol Long Term Evolution LTE Advanced Long Training Sequence Multiple Access Message Authentication Code Metropolitan Area Network Multi Protocol BGP Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Mobile Country Code Multicast Control Channel Multicast Channel Modulation and Coding Scheme Medium Dependent Interface Medium Dependent Interface crossed Million of Floating-point operations Per Second Master Information block Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension Multiple Input to Multiple Output Million of Integer operations Per Second Multiple In to Single Out Maximal Likelihood Detector Maximum Likelihood Sequence Detection Market Modeling Mobility Management Entity Max-Min Fairness Mobile Network Code MAC Protocol Data Unit Multi Protocol Label Switching Maximal Ratio Combining Mobile Station Mobile Switching Center Multicast Source Discovery Protocol MAC Service Data Unit Minimum Mean Square Error Maximum Sustained Trafﬁc Rate Multicast Trafﬁc Channel Multiple User detection Not Available Not Acknowledged Non Access Stratum Network Address Translators Network Allocation Vector Node with Base station Network Control Program National Center for Supercomputing List of Abbreviations NDP NF NHT NIC NM NML NMS NNTP Node B Non-GBR NRT nrtPS NRZ NTP OFDM OFDMA OFDSA OFUSC OoB OPEX OPUSC OSA OSI OSPF OSR OSS OTUSC PA PAP PAPR PAR PAT PBCH PC PC PCCH PCF PCFICH PCI PCRF PDAS PDCCH PDCP pdf PDN PDN-GW PDSCH PDU PER Neighbor Discovery Protocol Noise Figure Non HT Network Interface Card Neighborhood Matrix Network Management Layer Network Management System Network News Transfer Protocol Node Base Station Not Guaranteed Bit Rate Non-Real Time non-real time Polling Service Non Return to Zero Network Time Protocol Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Orthogonal Frequency Division Single Access Optional FUSC Out of Band Operational Expenditure Optional PUSC Open Service Access Open System Interconnection Open Shortest Path First Over-Subscription Ratio Operation Support System Optional Tiled Usage of Subchannels Percentage of Area Peak to Average Power Ratio Peak to Average Power Ratio Peak to Average Ratio Port Address Translation Physical Broadcast Channel Point Coordinator Personal Computer Paging Control Channel Point Coordination Function Physical Control Format Indicator Channel Physical Cell ID Policy Control and Charging Rules Function Pilot and Data Allocation Scheme Physical Downlink Control Channel Packet Data Convergence Protocol probability density function Packet Data network PDN Gateway Physical Downlink Shared Channel Protocol Data Unit Packet Error Rate lv lvi PermBase PGW PFICH P-GW PHICH PHY PIFS PIM-DM PIM-SM PING PIR PLCP PLF PLL PLMN PMCH pmf PMK PMP POP PoP PP PPDU PPP PRACH PRBS PRS PS PS PS PSC PSDU PSS PSTN PTP PUCCH PUSC PUSC-DL PUSCH PUSC-UL Q QoS QPSK QZSS RA RACH RADIUS RAP RAT List of Abbreviations Permutation Base Packet data network GateWay Physical Format Indicator Channel PDN Gateway Physical Hybrid ARQ Channel Physical Layer Point Inter Frame Space Protocol independent Multicast Dense Mode Protocol independent Multicast Sparse Mode Echo Request Partial Incremental Redundancy Physical Layer Convergence Procedure Polarization Loss Factor Phase Locked Loop Public land Mobile Network Physical Multicast Channel probability mass function Pair-wise Master key Portable Multimedia Player Post ofﬁce Protocol Point of Presence Percentage of Population PLCP Protocol Data Unit Point to Point Protocol Physical Random Access Channel Pseudo Random Binary Sequence Primary Reference Source Power Save Packing Sub header Packet Switching Prediction Service Class PLCP Service Data Unit Primary Synchronization Signal Public Switched Telecommunications Network Precision Timing Protocol Physical Uplink Control Channel Partial Usage of Subchannels Partial Usage of Subchannels Downlink Physical Uplink Shared Channel Partial Usage of Subchannels Uplink In-quadrature Quality of Service Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying Quasi Zenith Satellite System Receiving STA Address Random Access Channel Remote Authentication Dial in User Service Random Access Preamble Radio Access Technology List of Abbreviations RB RBT RC RCPC RCTP RED REG Rel RF RFC RFH RFP RFQ RIP RIR RL RL RLC RMS RNC RoHC ROI RPC RPF RRC RRM RS RS-CC RSCP RSL RSRP RSSI RSV RSVP RT RTG RTP rtPS RTS RTSP RX RXLEV RZ S1 S1AP SA SAE SAG SAP Resource Block Random Back-off Time Raised Cosine Rate Compatible Convolutional Code Rate Compatible Punctured Turbo Code Random Early Detection Resource Element Group Release Radio Frequency Request for Comments RF Head Request for Proposal Request for Quote Routing Information Protocol Regional Internet registries Return Loss Reﬂection Loss Radio Link protocol Root Mean Square value Radio Network Controller Robust Header Compression Return of Investment Remote Procedure Call Reﬂected Power Factor Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Management Reference Signal Reed-Solomon Convolutional Code Received Signal Code Power Received Signal Level Reference Signal Received Power Receive Signal Strength Information ReSerVed bit Resource Reservation Protocol Real Time Receive Transition Gap Real Time Protocol real time Polling Service Request To Send Real -time Streaming Protocol Receive Receive Level Return to Zero S1 interface S1 Application Protocol Source Address System Architecture Evolution Service Activation Gateway Service Access Point lvii lviii SB SB SBC SC SC SCH SCM SCME SC-OFDM SC-OFDMA SCTP SD SD SDP SDU SEMS SFBC SFD SFID SFN SG SGSN S-GW SIC SIFS SIMO SINC SIP SISO SKA SLA SLB SM SM SME SML SMTP SN SNA SNIR SNMP SNR SOAP SOFDMA SON SP SR SRB SRRC List of Abbreviations SuBscriber Short Block Single Board Computer Service Class Selection Combining Synchronization Channel Spatial Channel Model Spatial Channel Model Extended Single Carrier -OFDM Single Carrier -OFDMA Stream Control Transmission protocol Sphere Detector Sphere Decoding Session Description protocol Service Data Unit Service Element Management System Space Frequency Block Code Start Frame Delimiter Service Flow Identiﬁer Single Frequency Network Smart Grid Serving GPRS Support Node Serving Gateway Successive Interference Cancellation Short Inter Frame Space Single In to Multiple Out Sine Cardinal or Sinus Cardinalis Session Initiation Protocol Single In to Single Out Shared Key Authentication Service Level Agreement Server Load Balancing Smart Meter Spatial Multiplexing Small and Medium Enterprise Service Management Layer Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Sequence Number System Network Architecture Signal to Noise and Interference Ratio Simple Network Management Protocol Signal to Noise Ratio Simple Object Access Protocol Scalable OFDMA Self-Organizing Network Service Plan Scheduling Request Signalling Radio Bearer Square Root Raised Cosine List of Abbreviations SRS SS SS SS SS7 SSB SSH SSID SSM SSS ST STA STA STBC STC STS SUI SVD SW SYN SYNC T TA TA TAC TACS TAI TB TCL TCP TDD TDG TDL TDM TEK Telnet TEMS TG TIA TIM TKIP TLS TMN TPC TRD TS TSD TSF TSL Sounding Reference Signal Subscriber Station Service Set Security Sublayer Signalling System 7 Single Side Band Secure Shell Service Set Identiﬁer Source Speciﬁc Multicast Secondary Synchronization Signal Slot Time Service Target Area Station Space Time Block Code Space Time Coding Short Training Sequence Stanford University Interim Singular Value Decomposition Software Synchronized sequence Number Synchronization Tract Transmitting STA Address Tracking Area Tracking Area Code Total Access Communication System Tracking Area Identity Transport Block Transit Control List Transmission Control Protocol Time Division Duplex Trafﬁc Distribution Grid Tapped Delay Line Time Division Multiplex Trafﬁc Encryption Key Telecommunications Network Trafﬁc Element Management System Target Area Telecommunications Industry Association Trafﬁc Indication Map Temporal Key Integrity Protocol Transport Layer Security Telecommunications Management Network Transmit Power Control Transmit and Receive Diversity Terminal Station Transmit Selection Diversity Timing Synchronization Function Transmitted Signal level lix lx TTA TTC TTG TTI TUSC Tx U UCD UCM UDP UE UEQM UGS UIUC UL UL_PermBase UL-MAP UL-MIMO UL-SCH UM-RLC UMTS U-NII UP UP UpPTS URS US USA USB USC UTRA UTRAN VANC VoIP VoLGA VPN VRRP VSWR WAVE WCDMA WDPT WDS WEP WFQ WiMAX WINNER WLAN WM WO List of Abbreviations Telecommunications Technology Association (Korea) Telecommunications Technology Committee (Japan) Transmit Transition Gap Transmit Time Interval Tiled Usage of Subchannels Transmit User Uplink Channel Descriptor Uplink Collaborative MIMO User Datagram Protocol User Equipment Unequal Modulation Scheme Unsolicited Grant of Service Uplink IUC Uplink Uplink Permutation Base Uplink Map Uplink MIMO Uplink Shared Channel Unacknowledged Mode Radio Link Control Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Upstream Uplink Uplink Pilot Time Slot Uplink Reference Signal UpStream United States of America Universal Serial Bus User Service Class UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network VoLGA Access Network Controller Voice over IP Voice over LTE via Generic Access Virtual Private Network Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Wireless Access for Vehicular Environment Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Wireless Design and Planning Tool Wireless Distribution System Wired Equivalent Privacy Weighted Fair Queuing Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Wireless world Initiative New Radio Wireless Local Area Network Wireless Medium Wireless Overhead List of Abbreviations WPA WRED WWW X2 XML ZCC ZF Wi-Fi Protected Access Weighted RED World Wide Web X2 interface eXtensible Markup Language Zero Cross Correlation Zero Forcing lxi Introduction Wireless communications are becoming a major factor in our daily lives.
Word editors, Spreadsheets and Presentation software increased efﬁciency tenfold. • Today, we count on the availability of wireless networks wherever we go. The offering became ubiquitous and wireless is displacing landlines, soon to be the dominant method of communications. Public pay phones are being virtually removed. • Internet connectivity is a must and e-mails are overwhelmingly the main form of written communication. Soon hand-written letters will be a thing of the past also. • GPS location is not yet fully explored, but paper maps are disappearing and many new and exciting applications are being developed.
Topics related to 4G technologies were the ones I explored more deeply, as their comprehension is the basis of creating successful designs. Design and optimization tasks are presented in detail and I found that the best way to illustrate them was to display the conﬁguration screens of design and optimization tools. I am grateful to CelPlan Technologies for allowing me to use their tools to illustrate wireless design procedures. As an engineer, I always endeavor to understand the physical meanings of mathematical equations and concepts, including the “whys” of the technology solution.