By Curtis D. Klaassen
Original because the most efficient within the box, Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology is now on hand in a brand new 6th variation that equips you with an unsurpassed therapy of recent toxicology, together with the rules, options, mechanisms, and modes of idea which are the root of the self-discipline. accomplished and entirely brand new, the hot variation of Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology is still your top resource for the newest breakthroughs during this fast-changing box. * the hot variation of this highest quality within the box is extra beneficial than ever * specific insurance of the advances in molecular biology and pharmacogenetics * accelerated insurance of possibility overview * assurance of on-line references, as well as conventional print magazine and evaluation articles * New bankruptcy outlines * New 2-color layout
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Additional resources for Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the basic science of poisons Sixth Edition
Dotted lines represents the confidence limits for chemical A. ability. 7 percent of the population, one can assign all animals that lie outside this range after treatment with a chemical as being affected and those lying within this range as not being affected by the chemical. Using a series of doses of the chemical, one thus can construct a quantal dose–response curve similar to that described above for lethality. In Figs. 2-4 and 2-5 the dosage has been given on a log basis. Although the use of the log of the dosage is empiric, log-dosage plots for normally distributed quantal data provide a more nearly linear representation of the data.
Thus, we have a bell-shaped curve known as a normal frequency distribution. The reason for this normal distribution is that there are differences in susceptibility to chemicals among individ- 2996R_ch02_017-022 4/11/01 9:38 AM Page 19 CHAPTER 2 PRINCIPLES OF TOXICOLOGY Figure 2-4. Diagram of quantal dose–response relationship. The abscissa is a log dosage of the chemical. In the top panel the ordinate is mortality frequency, in the middle panel the ordinate is percent mortality, and in the bottom panel the mortality is in probit units (see text).
Next in order of frequency of involvement in systemic toxicity are the circulatory system; the blood and hematopoietic system; visceral organs such as the liver, kidney, and lung; and the skin. Muscle and bone are least often the target tissues for systemic effects. With substances that have a predominantly local effect, the frequency with which tissues react depends largely on the portal of entry (skin, gastrointestinal tract, or respiratory tract). ), it is necessary, in assessing the spectrum of responses, to consider how different chemicals may interact with each other.