By James Speight
Control chemical techniques to get the implications you will want
useful to chemical and environmental engineers in addition to strategy designers, Chemical technique and layout guide indicates you ways to regulate chemical strategies to yield wanted results successfully and economically. The publication examines all of the significant chemical approaches, reminiscent of reactions, separations, blending, heating, cooling, strain switch, and particle dimension aid and expansion -- in logically prepared alphabetical chapters, giving you an realizing of the fundamental qualitative research of every. The instruction manual, from specialist James Speight:
- Emphasizes chemical conversions -- chemical reactions utilized to business processing
- offers easy-to-understand descriptions to provide an explanation for reactor style and layout
- Describes the newest approach advancements and attainable destiny advancements or adjustments
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Extra resources for Chemical Process and Design Handbook
Most commercial sulfonation reactions are batch operations. Continuous operations are feasible and practical (1) where the organic compound (benzene or naphthalene) can be volatilized, (2) when reaction rates are high (as in the chlorosulfonation of paraffins and the sulfonation of alcohols), and (3) where production is large (as in the manufacture of detergents, such as alkylaryl sulfonates). Water of reaction forms during most sulfonation reactions, and unless a method is devised to prevent excessive dilution because of water formed during the reaction, the rate of sulfonation will be reduced.
In aqueous solutions, acetaldehyde exists in equilibrium with the acetaldehyde hydrate [CH3CH(OH)2]. 003% (1 molecule in approximately 30,000) and can be acetylated with ketene (CH2=C=O) to form vinyl acetate (CH2=CHOCOCH3). 7 ACETAL RESINS Acetal resins are those homopolymers (melting point: ca. 175o C, density: ca. 41) and copolymers (melting point: ca. 165oC, density: ca. 42) where the backbone or main structural chain is completely or essentially composed of repeating oxymethylene units (-CH2O-)n.
Water of reaction forms during most sulfonation reactions, and unless a method is devised to prevent excessive dilution because of water formed during the reaction, the rate of sulfonation will be reduced. In the interests of economy in sulfuric acid consumption, it is advantageous to remove or chemically combine this water of reaction. For example, the use of reduced pressure for removing the water of reaction has some technical advantages in the sulfonation of phenol and of benzene. The use of the partial-pressure distillation is predicated upon the ability of the diluent, or an excess of volatile reactant, to remove the water of reaction as it is formed and, hence, to maintain a high concentration of sulfuric acid.