By Donald R. Murphy
This clinically orientated textual content will give you a entire reference of cervical backbone functionality, disorder, scientific syndromes, evaluate and administration. You get directions on how you can strategy particular scientific syndromes regarding the cervical backbone from the viewpoint of symptoms and syndromes, differential analysis, therapy, rehabilitation, referral and residential care.
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Additional info for Conservative Management of Cervical Spine Syndromes
The longus capitis and the more superior parts of longus colli are able to flex and laterally flex the upper cervical spine selectively. The fascicles of longus colli that pass superomedially to their insertion on the atlas are angled for ipsilateral rotation, but their lever arm is small since the anterior tubercle is close to the axis of rotation within the dens. Although longus capitis also crosses the atlanto-axial joint, its orientation limits its ac tions to flexion and lateral flexion. Despite its depth and proximity to important neural and vascular elements, the longus colli has been monitored with indwelling EMG electrodes.
Functional Anatomy of the Cervical Spine between atlas and axis, and portions of the ligament fan deep to the semispinalis capitis muscle to form lateral at tachments on the superior nuchal lines. The dural attach ment may assist in preventing inward buckling of the dura mater during head and neck extension. Mitchell and col leaguesl8 suggest that the lateral fibers may guide or limit rotation of the head. I? Since a large, elastic ligament provides torque to extend the head and neck, animals with well-developed nuchal ligaments are able to utilize cervical postures that minimize muscular ef fort by balancing ligament tension against gravity.
The muscle's scapula elevating action suggests that it might be recruited during upper limb elevation, but its rotating action suggests that it might not, since glenoid up rotation is required. In fact, re cruitment during upper limb efforts is controversial. 24 However, needle electrodes placed with ap propriate regard to proper position in the inferior part of the muscle by Behrsin and Maguire26 indicated consider able activity during upper limb abduction and flexion, and no activity during upper limb extension.