Culture and Propaganda: The Progressive Origins of American by Sarah Ellen Graham

By Sarah Ellen Graham

In the course of the 20th century governments got here to more and more enjoy the price of sentimental strength to assist them in attaining their international coverage objectives. masking the the most important interval among 1936 and 1953, this booklet examines the U.S. government’s adoption of diplomatic courses that have been designed to cajole, tell, and allure international public opinion in aid of yankee nationwide pursuits. Cultural international relations and overseas details have been deeply debatable to an American public that been bombarded with propaganda throughout the First international struggle. This booklet explains how new notions of propaganda as reciprocal trade, cultural engagement, and enlightening info lead the way for recommendations in U.S. diplomatic perform. via a comparative research of the country Department’s department of Cultural relatives, the govt. radio station Voice of the United States, and the multilateral cultural, academic and clinical international relations of Unesco, and drawing greatly on U.S. overseas coverage files, this e-book exhibits how America’s liberal traditions have been reconciled with the duty of influencing and attracting publics in a foreign country.

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92 In a 1942 book entitled America’s Strategy in World Politics, Yale’s Nicholas John Spykman also criticized the humanistic vision of international cultural cooperation and international communication that had been put into practice by European intellectuals after 1919. ”93 Military power was the only determinant of national success or failure, and as such, propaganda was relevant to foreign policy only as an instrument of warfare, and not as a basis for peace or global reform. Spykman charged that war “cannot be won except with the whole-hearted cooperation of both soldiers and civilians,” hence “[t]he state has become vulnerable to new weapons.

14 On the domestic side, the CPI also organized a group of Timothy Richard Glander, Origins of Mass Communications Research During the American Cold War (London: Routledge, 1999), p. 5. 11 Thompson, Reformers and War, pp. 223–7. 12 Sproule, Propaganda and Democracy, p. 10. 13 Emily S. Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream: American Economic and Cultural Expansion, 1890–1945 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1982), p. 79. 14 Nicholas Cull, The Cold War and the United States Information Agency (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p.

23 In addition to this general information program in support of US war aims, the CPI experimented with targeted communication strategies akin to psychological warfare, such as fostering disruptive separatist movements in Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as well as agitation for Spain’s entry into the conflict on the side of the Allies. Like the other combatants in the war, the CPI worked in conjunction with the US Army to prepare leaflet campaigns to undermine the morale of enemy troops.

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