By Richard Hydomako
In 2010, the ALPHA collaboration accomplished a primary for mankind: the sturdy, long term garage of atomic antimatter, a venture performed a the Antiproton Decelerator facility at CERN. a very important section of this commentary used to be a devoted silicon vertexing detector used to spot and examine antihydrogen annihilations. This thesis stories the equipment used to reconstruct the annihilation position. particularly, the equipment used to spot and extrapolate charged particle tracks and estimate the originating annihilation position are defined. eventually, the experimental effects demonstrating the first-ever magnetic confinement of antihydrogen atoms are provided. those effects depend seriously at the silicon detector, and as such, the position of the annihilation vertex reconstruction is emphasized.
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As a consequence, the cooling positrons will eventually come to reside in the low-pressure region. Surrounding the low-pressure region is a special six-way segmented electrode, used to provide an azimuthally varying and oscillating electric field. This field applies a torque to the positron plasma, which acts to compresses the plasma radially. This “rotating wall” technique (to be discussed further in Sect. 3) increases the positron density, but also heats the plasma. Fortunately, the nitrogen buffer gas continues to provide cooling while the rotating wall compression is applied.
The single particle description of Sect. 1 still applies for antiproton clouds with small densities, such as before radial compression (Sect. 3). Fortunately, excellent radial confinement of nonneutral plasmas in a strong axial magnetic field follows from angular momentum conservation. e. A = θˆ Aθ (r )). For a uniform, axial magnetic field Aθ (r ) = Br/2, and noting that for a strong magnetic field the second term in Eq. 25 will dominate, the canonical angular momentum reduces to N Pθ j=1 qB 2 r .
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