Economic Sanctions Reconsidered by Gary Clyde Hufbauer

By Gary Clyde Hufbauer

Financial sanctions proceed to play a tremendous position within the reaction to terrorism, nuclear proliferation, army conflicts, and different international coverage crises. yet negative layout and implementation of sanctions rules usually suggest they fall in need of their wanted results. This landmark examine, first released in 1985, delves into the wealthy event of sanctions within the twentieth century to reap classes on find out how to use sanctions extra successfully. This quantity - now with ease on hand in a paperback layout - is the 3rd and elevated version of this greatly brought up examine. The authors' specified database on sanctions now covers nearly 2 hundred case reports. The research is considerably revised to take account of the recent demanding situations dealing with policymakers because the finish of the chilly conflict and the acceleration of globalization of exchange and monetary markets.

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8 billion). f. 7 billion). 5; Yates (1959); United Nations, Yearbook of International Trade Statistics, various issues; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, various issues. Plan of the Book Chapter 2 introduces the analytical framework and the explanatory variables that we use to examine each sanctions episode. We explain our methodology for defining a sanctions episode, its duration, and its outcome and provide an overview of the variables documented in the case studies.

1 Chronological summary of economic sanctions for foreign policy goals, 1914–2000 (continued) Case no. Principal sender Target country Active years Goals of sender country 96-2 United States, European Union Niger 1996–2000 Restore democracy 96-3 United States, Western donors Zambia 1996–98 1) Improve human rights 2) Constitutional reform 96-4 United States Colombia 1996–98 1) Stop drug trafficking 2) Improve human rights 96-5 United States, Mercosur Paraguay 1996 Deter coup attempt 97-1 United Nations, Economic Community of West African States Sierra Leone 1997–2003 Stop civil war 98-1 United States India 1998–2001 1) Retaliate for nuclear test 2) Constrain nuclear program 98-2 United States, European Union Yugoslavia, Serbia 1998–2001 1) Stop aggression in Kosovo 2) Destabilize Milosevic 98-3 Turkey Italy 1998–99 Extradite leader of the Kurdish Workers’ Party (PKK) 99-1 United States, United Nations Afghanistan 1999–2002 Extradite Osama bin Laden 99-2 United States, European Union, France Ivory Coast 1999–2002 Restore democracy 99-3 United States, Japan Pakistan 1999–2001 Restore democracy 00-1 United States Ecuador 2000 Prevent coup attempt S-1 United States Countries supporting international terrorism 1972– Overview S-2 United States Countries violating human rights 1973– Overview S-3 United States and Canada Countries pursuing nuclear weapons option 1974– Overview S-4 United States Drug-producing countries 1988– Overview 97-2a New York, California Swiss banks Restitution of dormant bank accounts and other assets of Holocaust victims 1997–98 ChinCom = China Committee CoCom = Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls Comecon = Council for Mutual Economic Assistance EC/EU = European Community/European Union Mercosur = Mercado Común del Sur (Southern Common Market) UNITA = National Union for the Total Independence of Angola a.

This brief review underlines the central role that economic sanctions have played in the conduct of US foreign policy since World War I. 1, the United States, either alone or in concert with its allies, has deployed sanctions 109 times. 19 Sanctions have been deployed more frequently in the post–World War II era. 1 summarizes the record, presenting first the number of sanctions episodes initiated in each five-year period beginning with 1911–15; second, the cumulative cost imposed by ongoing sanctions against target countries every fifth year beginning with 1915 (expressed as an annualized figure in current US dollars); and third, for comparison, the value of total world merchandise exports (expressed in current US dollars).

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