By United Nations
This research examines the monetary structures in economies of the ESCWA area, and the position of those structures by way of fiscal development. Such an exam goals to give a contribution to a greater realizing of the functioning of monetary markets within the zone, and endeavours to permit international locations to accomplish larger progress charges than long ago. the current factor makes a speciality of the banking area.
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Additional info for Economic Trends And Impacts: Banking Sector Lending Behaviour And Efficiency in Selected Escwa Member Countries
M2 includes Mland time, saving and foreign currency deposits. The ratio of M1 to GDP is calculated by using the formula given in footnote 26. End of Year CPI is not available for Lebanon and the United Arab Emirates. Accordingly, only the average CPI is used in the calculation. 28 Lebanon's very high M2 to GDP ratio contrasts sharply with its low M1 to GDP ratio. The major reason for this pattern is the fact that the US dollar is used as a secondary currency in the Lebanese money market. While M1 only includes currency in circulation and demand deposits in Lebanese pounds, M2 also comprises foreign currency denominated deposits.
Notes: The figure presents the average ratios for the periods 1980-1989 (1980s) and 1990-1999 (1990s), and the most recent observations. For Lebanon, Oman and the United Arab Emirates, reliable data are not available before 1986. * The last observation corresponds to the year 2002. M2 includes Mland time, saving and foreign currency deposits. The ratio of M1 to GDP is calculated by using the formula given in footnote 26. End of Year CPI is not available for Lebanon and the United Arab Emirates.
Foreign ownership in developing nations is generally associated with more competitive national systems, greater overall credit availability and a reduction in interest rate spreads that compels domestic banks to be more efficient. The increased competitiveness of the banking sector not only enhances efficiency but also stimulates innovation, contributes to stability, and improves the effectiveness of monetary policy implementation. This is due in large part to the fact that foreign investors bring state-of-the-art technology and human capital with them, forcing domestic banks to undergo major structural reforms to enable them to compete on an equal platform.