By Radio Corporation of America. Electron Tube Division
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Extra resources for Electron tube design
We’ll start our study, this chapter, with a brief recap of the ideas we covered in the last chapter. We saw then that resistors in series may be considered as a single equivalent resistor, whose resistance is found by adding together the resistance of each resistor. This is called the law of series resistors, which is given mathematically by: Similarly, there is a law of parallel resistors, by which the single equivalent resistance of a number of resistors connected in parallel is given by: Using these two laws many involved circuits may be broken down, step by step, into an equivalent circuit consisting of only one equivalent resistor.
Not end-to-end as series joined resistors are, but joined at both 44 On the boards ends. We say resistors joined together at both ends are in parallel. 8 shows a breadboard layout. Both these resistors are, again, 10 k resistors. What do you think the overall resistance will be? It’s certainly not 20 k! Measure it yourself using your multi-meter and breadboard. You should find that the overall resistance is 5 k. Odd, eh? Replace the two 10 k resistors with resistors of different value say, two 150 Ω resistors (brown, green, brown).
What is the overall resistance? You should find it’s about 1k3 — neither one thing nor the other! So, what’s the relationship? Well, a clue to the relationship between parallel resistors comes from the fact that, in a funny sort of way, parallel is the inverse of series. So if we inverted the formula for series resistors we saw earlier: 46 On the boards we would get: and this is the formula for parallel resistors. Let’s try it out on the resistors of this last experiment. Putting in the values, 10 k and 1k5 we get: which is about 1k3, the measured value.