By G. G. Járos and B. J. Meyer (Auth.)
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Benjamin Bederson contributed to the area of physics in lots of components: in atomic physics, the place he completed renown by means of his scattering and polarizability experiments, because the Editor-in-Chief for the yankee actual Society, the place he observed the creation of digital publishing and a extraordinary progress of the APS journals, with ever expanding world-wide contributions to those hugely esteemed journals, and because the originator of a few overseas physics meetings within the fields of atomic and collision physics, that are carrying on with to this present day.
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These play an important role in electronics. Metals are good conductors of electricity, but good conductors also vary in their number of free electrons. For example, copper has more free electrons than aluminium and is therefore a better conductor of electricity. The ability to conduct electricity is therefore determined by the material itself. The Origin of Electricity 4:5 'Flow1 of electrons For our purposes it is sufficient to define electrical current as the movement of charged particles. In order to bring about movement, force is necessary.
I = ,01 ampere V = 10 volts R - V _^ 10 = 1 000 ohms I 0,01 The resistor is connected in series with the lamp. ·. 01 A. FIG. 7 Schematic representation of an electrical circuit consisting of a 10 V battery (symbol -4· 10 V), a lamp (symbol Θ) having a resistance of 100 Ω and an unknown resistance R. The current is 0,01 A. The flow of electricity through liquids In metals the conducting properties are determined by the concentration of free electrons and in liquids, by the concentration of ions.
Magnetism can be temporarily induced in metals by an electrical current flowing in a coil wound around the metal. It can even be induced in air or in a vacuum by such a coil. In the case of electrically induced magnetism, one speaks of electromagnetism, the prin- Forces 3:9 ciples of which are important in connection with measuring instruments, many of which are used in medicine. Electromagnetism is discussed again in Chapter 6. Forces caused by differences in chemical concentration Only two phenomena will be discussed here, viz, diffusion and osmosis.