Force & Accommodation in World Politics by Stanley E Spangler, Airpower Research Institute

By Stanley E Spangler, Airpower Research Institute

With monetary pressures, demographic adjustments and the said futility of nuclear struggle gradually eroding the perceived software of conventional army strength, countries are having a look with new prefer at the conciliatory instruments that have been used a few successfully in the course of the classical international relations of the nineteenth century (negotiation, bargaining, using inducements). briefly – a international relations emphasizing cooperation and lodging. strength will nonetheless be a tremendous participant in overseas politics, specifically at reduce degrees of clash. whereas the realm strikes slowly towards a few new safety association, it behooves the superpowers to stress a cooperative type of international relations.

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See Dimitri K. Simes, "Soviet Policy toward the United States," in The Making ofAmerica's Soviet Policy, ed. Joseph S. Nye, Jr. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984),305-6 . 10. John Steinbruner, "Arms Control: Crisis or Compromise," Foreign Affairs 63, no. 5 (Summer 1985): 1049. 21 FORCE AND ACCOMMODATION 11. For a good discussion of our tendency to apply a "military grid" to complex political situations, see Hoffman,156-57 . 12. Michael Nacht, "On Memories, Interests, and Foreign Policy : The Case of Vietnam," in National Security and International Stability, ed.

29 FORCE AND ACCOMMODATION Fortunately, it is quite clear how Kennan felt in this area. * One of the modifications of his conception of containment (as it had been developed by 1948) that Kennan most objected to was in the area of inducements and negotiations . As originally conceived by Kennan, containment was designed to thwart aggressive Soviet moves through a "long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment ofRussian expansive tendencies . "9 With a worldview that saw the need to reestablish a viable global political and military balance, particularly in Europe, he believed containment could slow the growth of Soviet influence while competing centers of power developed.

3. See Philip M. Williams, CrisisManagement (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1976), 10-15, for a good discussion of the utility of international crises as an analytical tool. 4. The literature on the Cuban missile crisis is very extensive, but two good accounts thatdeal capably with the carrot aspects are the study above by George, Hall, and Simons; and Alexander L. George and Richard Smoke, Deterrence in American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974) . 5.

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