Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices by Shin-Tson Wu, Deng-Ke Yang

By Shin-Tson Wu, Deng-Ke Yang

From desktop desktops and cellphones to electronic cinema, Liquid Crystal monitors (LCDs) are necessary elements in an expanding array of hugely fascinating customer electronics and communique units, and are already the important know-how utilized in flat panel screens. This inter-disciplinary booklet is meant as an introductory consultant to the basic houses of liquid crystals and their purposes in reveal and photonic units, offering a uncomplicated realizing of the physics, optics, electro-optics, and fabric elements for cutting-edge show and photonic units.

Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal units includes:
* A accomplished review of LCDs together with liquid crystal physics, electro-optical houses, simulation suggestions and show and photonic applications.
* a variety of examples and case experiences, solved difficulties and tough homework conundrums beginning with simple physics and progressively introducing complex equipment innovations and structures.
* the foundations for designing complex professional transmissive, reflective, and transflective liquid crystal displays.
* Chapters on rising applied sciences reminiscent of tuneable liquid crystal photonic units together with laser beam guidance, mild switches for telecommunication and tunable-focus lenses.

Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal units is a helpful source for complex undergraduate and graduate scholars following demonstrate structures classes, who will make the most of its systematic method. The creation of complicated equipment options and buildings signifies that show engineers, scientists, and technicians lively within the box may also utilise this particular source, as can builders of a variety of structures and functions.

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The local field E ~ and the long molecular axis ~ well as the angles between E a and the liquid crystal director ~ n. 85) $ where K is the internal field tensor which is a second-rank tensor. Taking account of the internal field tensor and the thermal motion of the molecules, the polarization is ~ Á~ ~ Á ð~ ~ E þ NDah½K a~ aފi Á ~ E P ¼ Na ? 86) The macroscopic dielectric tensor is $ $ e ¼I þ $ $ N ½a ? 87) In a material consisting of non-polar molecules, the induced polarization consist of two parts: (1) the electronic polarization Pelectronic which comes from the deformation of the electron clouds of the constituting atoms of the molecule, and (2) the ionic polarization Pionic which comes from the relative displacement of the atoms constituting the molecule.

The magnetization M given by ~ ¼ Nkk ð~ ~ a þ Nk ? ½H ~ À ð~ ~ aŠ M a Á HÞ~ a Á HÞ~ ~ þ NDkð~ ~ a a Á HÞ~ ¼ Nk ? H ~ ~ ¼ Nk ? 72) where N is the molecular number density, kk and k ? are molecular magnetic polarizabilities parallel and perpendicular to the long molecular axis, respectively, and Dk ¼ kk À k ? 72) becomes 0 k ? þ Dkax ax B ~ M ¼ N @ Dkay ax Dkaz ax Dkax ay k ? þ Dkay ay Dkax az Dkay az Dkaz ay k ? 73) where ai ði ¼ x; y; zÞ are the projections of ~ a in the x, y, and z directions in the lab frame whose z axis is parallel to the liquid crystal director: az ¼ cosy, ax ¼ sin y cos f, and ay ¼ sin y sin f.

Freeman, San Francisco, 1980). 12 L. J. Lu and A. Saupe, ‘Observation of a biaxial nematic phase in potassium laurate-1-decanol-water mixtures’, Phys. Rev. , 45, 1000 (1980). 13 L. A. Madsen, T. J. Dingemans, M. Nakata, and E. T. Samulski, ‘Thermotropic biaxial nematic liquid crystals’, Phys. Rev. , 92, 145505 (2004). 14 B. R. Acharya, A. Primak, and S. Kumar, ‘Biaxial nematic phase in bent-core thermotropic mesogens’, Phys. Rev. , 92, 145505 (2004). 15 P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. A. Lee, and R. G. Petschek, ‘Ferroelectric nematic liquid crystals: realizability and molecular constraints’, Phys.

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