By Tina Chanter
Gender: Key innovations in Philosophy offers transparent and accomplished exposition and research of the most philosophical theories, principles and arguments that tell, and are raised through, questions of gender and sexuality. It explores either early feminist arguments, which tension 'sameness' among sexes within the pursuits of equality, and later theories, which emphasise distinction. It increases the query of the way succesfully feminist concept has negotiated the connection among gender, race and sophistication. The textual content appears at how Marxist and psychoanalytic thought support to articulate feminist conception and likewise at how they may inhibit it. It additionally explores the ways that the ways of Foucault and Derrida were taken up by means of feminist philosophy to reformulate questions of strength and beliefs. eventually it addresses modern questions of sexuality, transgender and know-how, and diverse political concerns confronted by way of ladies, akin to rape, abortion and pornography. Philosophy undergraduates will locate this a useful reduction to review, one who is going past uncomplicated definitions and summaries to truly open up attention-grabbing and critical rules and arguments.
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Extra info for Gender: Key Concepts in Philosophy
It is not that bodies, nature, or materiality precede social structures, culture, or history. Rather, it is the other way around: gender precedes sex. The logic goes like this. We posit some ostensibly natural ground from an always already cultural point of view, and then we start to act like it was always there, as if it were some necessary, unchanging, Platonic essence or ideal, pre-existing us, eternal in its verity. Such a positing serves a variety of purposes. It reassures us, makes us feel like we are on ﬁrm ground, the terra ﬁrma holding us up and justifying us in our quirky, historically produced, cultural beliefs about who we are, who we should be, and what possibilities should bind us.
It does very little to contest the causal connection between masculinity and power. Butch lesbians can parodically (and sometimes not so parodically) mimic heterosexual male/masculine power by occupying similar symbolic positions, but the normative link between masculinity and power is left untouched, in place, and stronger than ever. It has even recruited new advocates – they might not have the traditional body type, but they do all the other things right, and sometimes even better than ‘biological’ men.
That is, biology, anatomy, physiology, nature, DNA structure, genetics, materiality, ‘the body’ – or however one expresses it – comes before, logically and chronologically (as Julia Kristeva is so fond of saying – though not in this context), social structures, gendered roles, historically engendered expectations and preconceptions, cultural mores, prescriptions and taboos on sexual behavior, and so on. Delphy puts us through our paces and ends up claiming that the reverse is true. It is not that bodies, nature, or materiality precede social structures, culture, or history.