By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Committee on the Future of Supercomputing, Cynthia A. Patterson, Marc Snir, Susan L. Graham
Supercomputers play an important and becoming function in various parts vital to the state. they're used to handle hard technological know-how and expertise difficulties. in recent times, although, growth in supercomputing within the usa has slowed. the advance of the Earth Simulator supercomputer through Japan that the USA may possibly lose its aggressive virtue and, extra importantly, the nationwide competence had to in attaining nationwide objectives. within the wake of this improvement, the dep. of power requested the NRC to evaluate the country of U.S. supercomputing services and appropriate R&D. for that reason, the Senate directed DOE in S. Rpt. 107-220 to invite the NRC to judge the complicated Simulation and Computing application of the nationwide Nuclear protection management at DOE in gentle of the advance of the Earth Simulator. This document offers an evaluation of the present prestige of supercomputing within the usa together with a overview of present call for and expertise, infrastructure and associations, and overseas actions. The file additionally offers a few suggestions to permit the USA to satisfy present and destiny wishes for potential supercomputers.
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The main issue is whether it has efficient support for irregular accesses (gather/scatter), high memory bandwidth, and the ability to hide memory latency so as to sustain this bandwidth. Vector processors, for example, typically have a short (if any) cache line and high memory bandwidth. The vectors themselves provide a latency hiding mechanism. Such features enable custom processors to more efficiently deliver the raw memory bandwidth provided by memory chips, which often dominate system cost.
8 CSTB’s 1995 report Evolving the High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative to Support the Nation’s Infrastructure (the Brooks/Sutherland report)9 recommended the continuation of the HPCCI, funding of a strong experimental research program in software and algorithms for parallel computing machines, and HPCCI support for precompetitive research in computer architecture. In 1997, following the guidelines of the Hayes report, NSF established two Partnerships for Advanced Computational Infrastructure (PACIs), one with the San Diego Supercomputer Center as a leading-edge site and the other with the National Center for Supercomputing Applications as a leading-edge site.
Global parallelism is most frequently expressed using the MPI message passing library,8 while OpenMP9 is often used to express parallelism within a node. Libraries and languages that support global arrays10 are 7The GRAPE (short for GRAvity PipE) family of special-purpose systems for astrophysics is one example. jp/grape/>. html>. 9Leonardo Dagum and Ramesh Menon. 1998. ” IEEE Journal of Computational Science and Engineering (5)1. 10Tarek A. El-Ghazawi, William W. Carlson, and Jesse M. pdf>; Robert W.