Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Brain Diseases: by Vivi M. Heine, Stephanie Dooves, Dwayne Holmes, Judith

By Vivi M. Heine, Stephanie Dooves, Dwayne Holmes, Judith Wagner

Brain ailments may have a wide impression on sufferers and society, and remedy is usually no longer on hand. a brand new method within which somatic cells are reprogrammed into brought on pluripotent cells (iPS cells) is an important leap forward for regenerative medication. This gives you patient-specific tissue for substitute cures, in addition to disease-specific cells for developmental modeling and drug remedy screening. notwithstanding, this technique faces problems with low reprogramming potency, and poorly outlined standards for identifying the conversion of 1 mobilephone sort to a different. Cells include epigenetic “memories” of what they have been which may impact reprogramming. This e-book discusses some of the ways to reprogram cells, the keep an eye on and resolution of telephone identification, the epigenetic versions that experience emerged and the appliance of iPS phone treatment for mind illnesses, specifically Parkinson’s sickness and Vanishing White subject (VWM).​

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Extra info for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Brain Diseases: Understanding the Methods, Epigenetic Basis, and Applications for Regenerative Medicine.

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Cell Stem Cell 4:487–492 Nistor GI, Totoiu MO, Haque N, Carpenter MK, Keirstead HS (2005) Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into oligodendrocytes in high purity and myelinate after spinal cord transplantation. Glia 49:385–396 Okita K, Nakagawa M, Hyenjong H, Ichisaka T, Yamanaka S (2008) Generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells without viral vectors. Science 322:949–953 Panopoulos AD, Ruiz S, Izpisua Belmonte JC (2011) iPSCs: induced back to controversy. Cell Stem Cell 8:347–348 Park IH, Zhao R, West JA, Yabuuchi A, Huo H, Ince TA, Lerou PH, Lensch MW, Daley GQ (2008) Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency with defined factors.

And Hajkova et al. propose Tet 5mChydroxylases as another potential mechanism for DNA demethylation. Clearly, further research is required to sort these possibilities out, but it does appear that identification of active epigenetic mechanisms is approaching. NcRNA might also play a role in enhancing reprogramming efficiency and speed. Since ncRNA is a vast field, and arguably not a true epigenetic mechanism, research into using it for reprogramming will not be covered in as much detail. Two reviews of using miRNAs for reprogramming cell identity cite active research as well as its potential (Mallanna and Rizzino 2010; Sun et al.

2011) to fully reprogram mouse and human fibroblasts to pluripotency using expression of the miR-302/367 cluster was more efficient and faster than the common OSKM TF method. Intriguingly this study also showed the potential utility and limitation of epigenetic factors in assisting reprogramming. While VPA’s strengths have been noted earlier, this group found it was only useful for reprogramming mouse fibroblasts. This was argued to be due to VPA’s targeting of HDAC2 proteins. Mice have relatively higher levels of HDAC2 and so require VPA for miR-302/ 367 reprogramming, while humans already produce low levels of HDAC2 which are unaffected by VPA.

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