By James C. Clingermayer
Examines the institutional principles of the sport that either form and are formed by means of human habit, concentrating on the neighborhood point preparations.
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Additional resources for Institutional Constraints and Policy Choice: An Exploration of Local Governance
Minorities and neighborhood organizations) (Feiock and Clingermayer, 1990), but here, when a more inclusive index of contacting interests is employed, we find no significant relationship. We next explored possible differences in contacting patterns between district and at large representatives. 1. The interaction terms for media attentiveness and years on the council were significant and the F test indicated the effects of at-large representation were significant. 1 first with a sample made up only of at-large representatives and then employing a sample made up only of ward representatives.
Today zoning is almost universally practiced in most cities of significant size in the United States, and in the abstract at least, is well-regarded by most citizens. Yet it was not always so highly regarded, and even today particular zoning actions generate enormous controversy. We will examine the genesis of zoning in the United States, and then we examine the impacts of local institutions on the adoption of comprehensive zoning. In the years following the introduction of the first comprehensive zoning ordinance in 1916, zoning spread throughout the cities of the United States at a speed that far surpassed the incremental rate at which most municipal innovations were and are still adopted.
Clearly, participation of this kind is prompted by council consideration of development issues and media attention to those issues. 2 What is perhaps more theoretically interesting is the effect of the campaign support diversity variable. Earlier research (Clingermayer and Feiock 1990) found that this measure was related to council member casework regarding development policy, but no relationship between the diversity of campaign support and actual constituent or group contacts was hypothesized.