By Vladilen Letokhov
Quite various difficulties may be lumped jointly less than the final time period 'laser regulate of atoms and molecules'. They contain the laser number of atomic and molecular velocities for the aim of Doppler-free spectroscopy, laser keep watch over of the location and pace of atoms (i.e. laser trapping and cooling of atoms), and laser keep watch over of atomic and molecular approaches (ionization, dissociation) with a view of detecting unmarried atoms and molecules and especially isolating isotopes and nuclear isomers. over the past a long time the central difficulties posed were effectively solved, and plenty of of them have developed remarkably within the next investigations of the overseas examine group. for instance, the answer of the matter of laser cooling and trapping of atoms has given delivery to the hot box of physics of ultracold mater, i.e. quantum atomic and molecular gases. The laser non-coherent keep an eye on of uni-molecular methods have came upon an engaging extension within the box of laser coherent keep watch over of molecules. the idea that of laser keep an eye on of positions has been effectively confirmed with microparticles (optical tweezers), simultaneously with investigations into atomic regulate. The laser photo-ionization of molecules on surfaces has resulted in the improvement of novel recommendations of laser assisted mass spectrometry of macromolecules, etc. the purpose of this publication is to check those subject matters from a unified or 'coherent' perspective. will probably be important for lots of readers in quite a few fields of laser technological know-how and its functions.
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Additional info for Laser control of atoms and molecules
C) Power output curve. The laser intensity is plotted as a function of the laser frequency or the ﬁne tuning of the separation between the laser mirrors. The narrow dip in the center is the Lamb dip. laser frequency is tuned in toward the center of the Doppler proﬁle, the two holes coincide and the standing light wave interacts with only one group of particles. This results in a resonant decrease of power at the center of the Doppler ampliﬁcation line. This eﬀect, now called the “Lamb dip,” was ﬁrst considered by Lamb in his theory of the gas laser (Lamb 1964).
69) where σ(ω) is the radiative transition cross section at the light-ﬁeld frequency ω, and I is the radiation intensity (in photons/cm2 s). 69) with the relation n1 + n2 = 1. 70) where Isat is the absorption saturation intensity, given by Isat = 1 , 2σ (ω) T1 τp T1 . 71) When the saturation is strong enough (I(t) Isat ), there evidently occurs equalization of the level populations. This is only natural, for there then occurs the establishment of equilibrium between the two-level system and a light ﬁeld having a very high eﬀective radiation temperature (kTrad ¯ hω0 ).
The resonant atoms are those that have no velocity component in the direction of the light wave. (b) In this case, the light frequency is tuned above the atomic center frequency (ν > ν0 ), so that the atoms that are Doppler shifted into resonance move in the same direction as the light wave. (c) In this case, the light frequency is tuned below the atomic center frequency (ν < ν0 ), so that the atoms that are Doppler shifted into resonance move in the direction opposite to the propagation direction of the light wave.