Muscle Function Testing by Vladimir Janda

By Vladimir Janda

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Sample text

The main movements are flexion and extension (0-140 degrees) and A combination of pronation and supination 60 these creates an increased range of motion. The ulna cannot rotate. Pronation and supination take through the radius which only rotates around the ulna. The structure of the hand is very intricate. It involves 29 bones: and 14 five the radius, the u These permit a great variety of movements. The wrist and namely the proximal radiocarpal consists of two the distal joint. They form a functional unit and is no independent movement.

Tests for unilateral contraction Grades j, 4 Starting position: Supine lying. Fixation: The palm of the examiner's hand on the lower thorax. Movement: Flexion and rotation of the neck so that the forehead moves towards the untested side. Resistance: With the examiner's palm on the frontal tuberosity of the frontal bone of the tested side. 23 3 Starting position, fixation and movement: As for grades 5 and 4 without Grade resistance. Grades 2, 1 and 0 are not tested unilaterally. Possible errors 1.

During thp '>econd stage with the examiner's hands against the lower ribs. Grade 3 Starting position: Prone lying with the thorax over the edge of the plinth and flexed to 30 degrees, and the arms alongside the body Fixation: With both the examiner's hands on the buttocks and the pelvis. Movement: Even back extension through the full range of movement. Grade 2 Starting position: Prone lying with the arms alongside the body and the thorax against the plinth. Fixation: The buttocks and the pelvis with both the examiner's hands.

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