Physical Approaches to Biological Evolution by Mikhail V. Volkenstein, A. Beknazarov, M. Eigen

By Mikhail V. Volkenstein, A. Beknazarov, M. Eigen

"Mr. Wolkenstein's actual techniques to organic Evolution, even if it proves to offer the final word fact at the issues with which it offers, definitely merits, by means of its breadth and scope and profundity, to be thought of an impor­ tant occasion within the philosophical world." this can be a citation from an advent written through Bertrand Russell for Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. I exchanged in basic terms identify and topic. As for the remaining, i'll proceed quoting Russell, yet i'd quite say whatever myself. As Wittgenstein did with formal good judgment, Wolkenstein rectifies our perspectives on easy methods to procedure the good judgment of lifestyles from a proper theoretical foundation. Many bio­ logists don't think that their topic lends itself to the scrutiny of actual conception. They definitely admit that you can simulate organic phenomena by way of types that may be expressed in a mathematical shape. despite the fact that, they don't think that biology might be given a theoretical starting place that's outlined in the basic framework of physics. quite, they insist on a holistic procedure, banning any aid to primary ideas topic to actual theory.

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These notions as such are devoid of meaning, at least with respect to biology. In the Soviet Union they were bugaboos invented to scare naturalists. Today the times of fear are ended and we can treat the problem on its merits. We have already given arguments in favour of the union of biology with physics. 58], page 551): "Reductionism ... , can be reduced to the lower forms (for example, biological phenomena with the aid of physical and chemical laws ... " Here the words "fully ... reduced" are meaningless.

This idea was excellently expressed by Shakespeare in the central monologue of Hamlet. 40]. The views of Bohr on the relationship between biology and physics changed with the development of natural sciences, which is why it is interesting to consider his articles chronologically. 41J, he expounds his basic positions. " At the same time, Bohr emphasizes the incompatibility of his view with vitalism. He rejects "as unreasonable all attempts to introduce any special biological laws incompatible with rigidly established physical and chemical laws ...

What is determined is the ratio of the amount of a radioactive element to that of its decay end-product in a given mineral. Another method is based on palaeomagnetism. The magnetic poles of the Earth have exchanged their positions from time to time. Magnetized minerals retain an accurate memory of these events. In conjunction with radioactivity dating and the study of the sequences of fossilized organisms, the magnetic method provides useful results. 2,3]. The dating of the periods is based on the radioactive technique, whose accuracy diminishes with increasing remoteness from present time.

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