By Babak Ganji
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Additional resources for Politics of Confrontation: The Foreign Policy of the USA and Revolutionary Iran
According to a former diplomat of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Mir Ali Akbar Montazam, General Hossein Fardust established close relations with Ayatollah Beheshti. 89 Ayatollah Kho’i, a supporter of Hojjatieh, had the most extensive religious network of followers and former students. Kho’i’s influence stretched from Lebanon to Afghanistan and the former Soviet Azarbaijan. 90 Thus, the majority of Shi’a Muslims did not believe in Khomeini’s conception of an Islamic state. 91 The leaders of the Islamic Coalition Society in Iran were Ayatollah Beheshti and Ayatollah Mottahari, both of whom were employees of the Iranian Ministry of Education.
101 US-Saudi co-operation suffered another setback in early June when the North-South negotiations collapsed. 104 The Carter administration increases the pressure on the Shah After Saudi Arabia’s failure to raise its oil production, the Carter administration began to directly put pressure on the Shah on the issue of oil prices. 105 The Shah had sought to shift to the use of nuclear energy in order to preserve Iran’s oil resources. 106 Different offices within the State Department held different views of the stability of the Shah’s regime.
However, acting on the advice of former Secretary of State Dean Rusk, Carter chose William Sullivan, who had previously served in Laos and the Philippines. 110 THE CARTER ADMINISTRATION US’SPR OLICY EGIONAL TOWARDS STRATEGY IRAN AND POLICY TOWARDS IRAN 23 The Carter administration acted on the INR’s advice and increased the human rights pressure on the Shah. Vance’s trip to Iran in May 1977 set the stage for increasing that pressure. Before he went to Iran, the US embassy had sent the State Department a translated copy of a letter from Ali-Asghar Haj Seyyed Javadi, one of the Shah’s leading intellectual opponents, sharply criticizing the regime for its violation of human rights.