By John A. Timbrell
This prime textbook within the box examines the mechanisms underlying toxicity, quite the occasions on the molecular point and the criteria that be certain and impact toxicity. the recent variation is up-to-date to mirror the newest learn into the biochemical foundation of toxicology and the becoming matters over the hostile results of substances, environmental toxins, and occupational hazards.
Principles of Biochemical Toxicology, Fourth Edition completely explains dose-response relationships, disposition and metabolism, and poisonous responses to international compounds, and offers exact examples to make the mechanisms of toxicity extra obtainable to scholars encountering the topic for the 1st time. accomplished in scope with a transparent and concise process, the textual content contains precis sections, questions and version solutions, and carefully revised paintings that serves as an important relief to studying and teaching.
New to the Fourth Edition:
- reorganized sections that disguise simple rules by way of sections on sorts of toxicity
- extensive use of examples all through and diverse explanatory diagrams
- new fabric on hazard review, export structures, oxidative pressure, Thalidomide, Tamoxifen and asbestos proliferators, domoic acid, bone marrow (benzene), center (adriamycin), blood (primaquine), biomarkers, cytochrome P450 and different enzymes, receptor mediated results, endocrine disruption, ethanol, botox, arsenic, and more
- questions with solutions for every bankruptcy for assessment and self-checking
- expanded and up-to-date bankruptcy bibliographies
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Extra info for Principles of Biochemical Toxicology, Fourth Edition
Pratt WB, Tayler P, eds. Principles of Drug Action: The Basis of Pharmacology. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990. 7. Aldridge WN. Mechanisms and Concepts in Toxicology. London: Taylor and Francis, 1996. 8. Zbinden G. The no-effect level, an old bone contention in toxicology. Arch Toxicol 1979; 43:3. 9. Loomis TA, Hayes AW. Loomis’s Essentials of Toxicology. 4th ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1996. 10. Klaassen CD. Comparison of the toxicity of chemicals in newborn rats to bile-duct ligated and sham operated rats and mice.
The rate of diffusion is affected by certain factors: it is proportional to the concentration gradient across the membrane; the area and thickness of the membrane; and a diffusion constant, which depends on the physicochemical characteristics of the compound in question. This relationship is known as Fick’s Law: KAðC2 À C1 Þ ð1Þ d where A is the surface area, C2 is the concentration of compound outside and C1 the concentration on the inside of the membrane, d is the thickness of the membrane, and K is a constant, the diffusion coefficient.
With humans and animals in the wild, environmental exposure can be discontinuous or erratic, making it difficult to predict the outcome in terms of toxicity. Chronic toxicity may be quantitated in a similar manner to acute toxicity, using the TD50 concept. Measurement of chronic toxicity in comparison with acute toxicity measurements may reveal that the compound is accumulating in vivo and may therefore give a rough approximation of the probable whole-body half-life of the compound. For chronic toxicity, the TD50 is measured for a specific period of time, such as 90 days of chronic dosing.