By David W. Carroll
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Additional resources for Psychology of Language
One is that although early psycholinguistics primarily focused on syntax, more recently there has been an upsurge in interest in phonology, semantics, and pragmatics. These developments have led to a more well-rounded field, with research that cuts across these different areas (for example, Eberhard, Cutting, & Bock, 2005). INTRODUCTION: THEMES OF PSYCHOLINGUISTICS Second, although early research in psycholinguistics focused on language comprehension, there has been a strong surge of interest in language production recently.
For more than a hundred years, the primary method used in neurolinguistics was the study of language in individuals with aphasia. We can now observe the functioning of normal brains during various language tasks. The results of these studies has greatly deepened our understanding of neurolinguistics. Finally, psycholinguistics has matured to the point that we are beginning to see applications of psycholinguistic principles that are useful to society. At the same time, tangible progress has been made in applying psycholinguistic research to topics such as reading ( Just & Carpenter, 1987), bilingualism (Bialystok, 2001), and language disorders (Tartter, 1998).
Let us now turn our attention to transformational grammar. Deep and Surface Structure A crucial insight into language is that sentences have more than one level of structure. In transformational grammar, this insight is captured in the distinction between deep structure and surface structure. These are both tree structures, differing in emphasis. Deep structure is the underlying structure of a sentence that conveys the meaning of a sentence. Surface structure refers to the superficial arrangement of constituents and reflects the order in which the words are pronounced.