Stabilizers for photographic silver halide emulsions : by Gunther Fischer

By Gunther Fischer

Content material: Emulsion balance and Stabilization.- common Survey of correct Publications.- Heterocyclic Stabilizers and Antifogging Agents.- Phenolic Species.- Aliphatic and Non-Phenolic fragrant Compounds.- Miscellaneous Compounds and Methods.- the instant of Incorporating Stabilizers.- equipment of Incorporation.- Masked Antifoggants and Stabilizers.- Imagewise unlock from DIR Compounds.- Stabilization of particular Emulsions, fabrics, methods, and Properties.- program within the Presence of different elements and Additives.- functions lower than convinced Environmental Conditions.- purposes to avoid distinctive different types of Fog.- different designated Use.- Concluding Remarks.- Appendix, References, Indices

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9. 1. -(cp~NEt2 x: 53 , , - ..... , 62) [P-97c; P-ll1a,b]. 5) andfluorescent brighteners . 4) have nearly exclusively been applied by Fuji, beginning in about 1981 and increasing in 1994. These compounds are regarded as antioxidants [P-114b] and radical scavengers, such as ballasted triazines [P-114c]. Hydroxamic acids of pyridine derivatives were also used [P-114d]. 2. 16) and similar structures [P-115; P-116]. , 67) [P-118], and • benzothiazinones (such as 68) [P-119]. 3. Binuclear Heterocyclic Systems Avramenko et al.

48], and • thiophenes and benzothiazoles [R-49d, pp. 69 and 77]. 7. Applications The formation of TAl silver salts enabled Rahner et al. to make Ag/TAI Ag salt electrodes, that is, second-type electrodes analogous to Ag/AgCl electrodes [3-31d]. 3 HAf, undissociated antifoggant (here PMT); AI , antifoggant anion. , in compounds 7b , lOa , 20, 21) or crown ether rings (28). In stabilizer patents sometimes certain ranges of pk, and/or pK sp values are claimed, for example, • pK a 2': 8 and pK sp 2': 10 (purines, benzotriazoles) [P-127], • pK sp of azaindenes between those of silver chloride and bromide [P-128], or • pK sp above that of silver bromide [P-129].

4): each band could be divided into four single-nitrogen electron lines with the same shape and intensity. The electron density of N-7 in TAl is smaller than the electron densities of N-I and N-3 but, in the case of the silver salt and of chemisorbed TAl, the electron densities of the three nitrogen atoms appear to be nearly equal. It is considered that the nitrogen atoms in positions I, 3, and 7 of the TAl anion equally interact with silver ions on the grain surface. Mercaptoazoles such as PMT gave analogous ESCA results [3-42; 3-55].

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