The Atlantic (Seas in History) by Paul Butel

By Paul Butel

From Antiquity to fashionable occasions, the Atlantic has been the topic of myths and legends. The Atlantic by way of Paul Butel deals a world background of the sea encompassing the exploits of adventurers, Vikings, explorers equivalent to Christopher Columbus, emigrants, fishermen, and smooth investors. The booklet additionally highlights the significance of the expansion of ports reminiscent of manhattan and Liverpool and the battles of the Atlantic on the planet wars of the 20 th century.The writer bargains an exam of the legends of the sea, starting with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians navigating beyong the Pillars of Hercules, and info the exploitation and gear struggles of the Atlantic throughout the centuries.The booklet surveys the $64000 occasions within the Atlantic's wealthy heritage and comprehensively analyses the altering fortunes of sea-going international locations, together with Britain, the U.S. and Germany.

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We cannot agree, therefore, that the ocean was the limit of the empire. Besides, without counting Caesar, other illustrious Romans undertook expeditions to Britain—for example, Agricola. 29 In his Commentaries, however, Caesar says nothing of the sort at the time of the expeditions of 54 and 55 BC. From the first century BC, relations between Britain and the Continent were very close. In the imperial era, the important needs of the army in Britain, the cargoes of provisions and fabrics, at least until the end of the second century AD, were satisfied by expeditions that were most often led from Baetica by way of the Atlantic.

Pytheas’s exploration enabled the British and North Sea coasts to be surveyed, perhaps as far as the latitude of Bergen. The frozen sea discovered near Thule, some 66° latitude north, was doubtless not an ice flow but an ice drift, a spectacle disconcerting to sailors accustomed to the sunlit south-western shores, rich in wine and salt. Such latitudes are doubtless too distant for the six days’ sail north of Britain it is said to have taken the Massilian to reach Thule, which, therefore, could correspond only to Shetland.

Already important in antiquity, from the tenth to the thirteenth century it was driven by the enormous part played by the sailors of Al Andalus in the commercial exploitation of the riches in Andalusia and the Maghrib, where they had already encountered competition from the sailors and fishermen of Galicia and Portugal. At the beginning of the thirteenth century, and particularly in the fourteenth, new ambitious sailors and merchants intervened and took on this role. 1 Two of the largest medieval navies, the Hanseatic and the Genoese, brought renewed activity to navigating the Atlantic.

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