By Dieter Suter

This booklet presents a throrough advent to the interplay of atoms and atomic ions with optical and magnetic fields. the writer areas specific emphasis at the wealth of significant multilevel results, the place atomic vapors convey anisotropic habit. in addition to masking the vintage two-level atom method of light-atom interactions, Suter describes intimately a basic multilevel formalism, which he makes use of to debate optical pumping, two-dimensional spectroscopy and nonlinear optical dynamics. the ultimate bankruptcy offers with the mechanical results of sunshine, together with the cooling and trapping of atoms. With complete theoretical and experimental insurance, and over 250 illustrations, the ebook can be of serious curiosity to graduate scholars of laser spectroscopy, quantum electronics and quantum optics, and to researchers in those fields.

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**Example text**

Is the same for distinguishable and indistinguishable statistics). 2. Consider a gas where the particles can only move on the surface of a plane and thus are restricted to two-dimensional motion. 2, find the density of states, partition function, and internal energy for this two-dimensional system, , 3. What is the root-mean-square speed of a nitrogen molecule at room temperature? 4. Show that the ratio of the mean-square-speed to the square of the mean speed of the particles in a gas is 3rt/8.

As there are many, many closely spaced levels, we often rewrite the above equation in terms of n(e:)de:, the number of particles in the energy interval between e: and e + de: = n=I1(n;+g;-l)! (g; - I)! both approximated as n; and g; are very large, this can be n(e:)de n=I1(n;+gj)! gj! 3) I Now, importantly for our gas at STP, we recall that gj above eq~ation can be simplified even further. We ,:"rite no . ing c<[n 1) ... (gj = Ag(e) exp( -e/ kBT)de: - l)(gi - 2) ... gj! 5) where g(e:)de: is a very important quantity known as the density of states.

17) remains the same if we double the nllmber of particles and the volume. 1'1 :: (7.. p )N. 15)) that the statistical term corresponding to changes in entropy was TdS Li cidni, and thus along an isentrope = 1 - LCidni T . 18) I Expansion it is of interest to consider the implications of this equation for the adiabatic expansion of an ideal monatomic gas. e. a increasing). Clearly the quantum energy levels change during such an expansion - indeed each level will fall as a- 2 . Note that all of the quantum levels fall as the same function of a.