By Arthur Wingfield and Dennis L. Byrnes (Auth.)
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Extra info for The Psychology of Human Memory
Shepard recorded an astonishing average of 88% correct, or 475 words correctly recognized after a single exposure! Using the same procedure Procedures In Verbal Learning 31 for a list of 612 sentences also produced recognition scores as high as 89% correct. Two subjects who had been presented with a list of 1224 sentences were able to attain recognition scores of no less than 88% correct. This would be equivalent in free recall to recalling some 1077 sentences. To understand these dramatic results it is important to note that Shepard's testing procedure was specifically designed to produce maximum performance.
Positive transfer refers to cases where learning a prior list facilitates performance on a second list. Negative transfer refers to cases where a previously learned list creates difficulties for second-list learning. Finally, we speak of "no transfer" when first-list learning produces no effect at all on the learning of a second list. We must, in these studies, be able to distinguish between the specific transfer effects of interest, versus generalized, or nonspecific transfer which can occur independent of the characteristics of the learning materials.
The family friend may be called "daddy," as well as any male stranger who may happen by. Although the child can recognize his or her own parents and be capable of producing the word, its use is not yet restricted (associated) to these particular people. Transfer The experimental study of similarity effects often takes the form of a Experiments transfer task (Osgood, 1949). For example, the subject may learn a list of and Similarity paired-associate items (an Α - B list), followed by learning a second list consisting of the same stimulus terms with different response terms (an Α - C list).