By Paul M. Kennedy
Booklet through Kennedy, Paul M.
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Extra info for The Realities behind Diplomacy; Background Influences on British External Policy, 1865-1980
10. 48. 107–8. 49. 246. 50. The demand for total separation of religion from the state was raised by few of them, with the most prominent and blunt among them being the Egyptian Faraj Fuda (1945– 92). 72. 51. Michaelle L. 53–5. 52. Khaled Dakhil, ‘Al-Līberālīya wal-‘almānīyya: tawatua al-dawla wal-tayyār al-Dini’ [Liberalism and Secularism: Conspiracy of the State and the Religious Stream], AlIttihad, 4 April 2005. 53. 158–65. 54. Bernard Lewis characterizes the regimes of societies with a Muslim majority into five categories: traditional autocracies; modernizing autocracies; fascist-style dictatorships; radical Islamic regimes; and Central Asian Islamic republics.
110 Two approaches are followed in research that challenges this perception: one is that of Esposito and Voll (1994, 1996),111 determining that Islamic heritage includes broad concepts for the development of democracy: consultation or shura (shūrā), consensus (ijmā‘) and selfinterpretation (ijtihād), as well as other constitutional fundamentals that limit the power of the ruler – the legal status and protection that is given to protected minorities (dhimmis) and the subordination of the rulers to Islamic law and its interpretation by the religious sages.
22. From the entry ‘muwāṭana’, Wikipedia, Arabic version. 116–8. A meeting between Abd al-Hamid al-Anṣari and the author, Qatar, 30 May 2007. There is no single term used by Arab intellectuals for the translation of the word ‘individualism’. The common terms in Arabic for translating ‘individualism’ are alfarḍīya, al-dhatīya and al-anānīya. 18–19. 1. 79. See, at the same time, the statements by al-Dakhil by which he determines that ‘when we set the fundamentals of liberalism – individualism, freedom, and pluralism – within an Arabic cultural framework, we find that they are simply slogans’ (al-Dakhil, ‘Al-Liberaliya wal-al‘almānīyya’).