Thin Film Ferroelectric Materials and Devices by Scott R. Summerfelt (auth.), R. Ramesh (eds.)

By Scott R. Summerfelt (auth.), R. Ramesh (eds.)

The previous 5 years have witnessed a few dramatic advancements within the basic sector of ferroelectric skinny motion pictures fabrics and units. Ferroelectrics aren't new fabrics by means of any stretch ofimagination. certainly, they've been identified because the early partofthis century and well known ferroelectric fabrics corresponding to Barium Titanate were in use because the moment international struggle. within the overdue sixties and seventies, a substantial amountofresearch and improvement attempt was once made to create an effective country nonvolatile reminiscence utilizing ferroelectrics in a fluctuate basic matrix-addressed scheme. those makes an attempt failed basically as a result of difficulties linked to both the fabrics ordue to equipment architectures. The early eighties observed the arrival of recent fabrics processing ways, comparable to sol-gel processing, that enabled researchers to manufacture sub-micron skinny motion pictures of ferroelectric fabrics on a silicon substrate. those pioneering advancements signaled the onsetofa revival within the areaofferroelectric skinny movies, specially ferroelectric nonvolatile thoughts. study and improvement attempt in ferroelectric fabrics and units has now hit a feverish pitch, Many collage laboratories, nationwide laboratories and complex R&D laboratories oflarge IC brands are deeply eager about the pursuit of ferroelectric machine applied sciences. Many businesses around the world are making an investment substantial manpower and assets into ferroelectric applied sciences. a few have already introduced items starting from embedded stories in micro­ controllers, low density stand-alone thoughts, microwave circuit parts, andrf id tags. there's now massive optimism that ferroelectric units andproducts will occupy an important market-share within the new millennium.

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An illustration of how the direct oxidation might change the shape of the bottom electrode is shown in Figure 28. This deformation of the bottom electrode will cause problems with the leakage current of the deposited BST. Figure 28 : Oxidation of bottom electrode structure with TiN diffusion barrier showing TiOz formation on the sidewall. The change in thickness of TiN after oxidation to Ti0 2 is also shown for reference. Alternative structures for TiN Alternative bottom electrode structures have been proposed in which the diffusion barrier is not directly exposed to an oxygen containing ambient during BST deposition.

The dielectric constant is an intrinsic property peculiar to a substance, and the dielectric constant decrease in thin films is an unsolved problem. It is known that the dielectric constant of fine-grained ceramics is lower than that of ceramics having usual grain sizes [10, 11]. The grain size dependence of the dielectric constant has been explained by assuming a low dielectric constant layer with a fixed thickness on the crystal grain interface [10]. On the other hand, for microcrystalline ceramics, ArIt et al.

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. R. H. Dennard, United States Patent, 3387286, July 14, 1967 (1968). P. C. Fazan, Integrated Ferroelectrics, 4, 247-256 (1994). SIA, (1995). C. W. Teng, SSDM, (1995). H. Watanabe, A. Sakai, T. Tatsumi and T. Niino, Solid State Technology, 30, 29-33 (1992). P. C. Fazan, C. Chan and V. K. Mathews, Semiconductor International, ,108-112 (1992). T. Morihara, Y. Ohno, T. Eimori, T. Katayama, S. Satoh, T. Nishimura and H. Miyoshi, Japanese J. of Applied Physics, 33,4570-4575 (1994).

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