Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals: A Practical by Østergaard, Grete; Larsen, John Christian; Nielsen, Elsa

By Østergaard, Grete; Larsen, John Christian; Nielsen, Elsa

In contrast to many latest books on toxicology that disguise both toxicity of a selected substance or toxicity of chemical substances on specific organ structures, this publication lays out the main actions of undertaking a toxicological chance evaluate, together with overseas methods and techniques for the danger evaluate of chemical compounds. It illustrates every one step within the approach: danger id, a dose response Read more...

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Alexeeff Copyright © 2015 Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd. com 2 Principles and Approaches for Human Health Risk Assessment information presented here is intended to provide a useful starting point for understanding of the subsequent chapters which discuss specific aspects relating to chemical toxicity and risk assessment. Human health risk assessment is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as “the process to estimate the nature and probability of adverse health effects in humans who may be exposed to chemicals in contaminated environmental media, now or in the future” [1].

An important principle of classical toxicology is that there is a clear dose–response relationship for toxic effects, with effects increasing over a certain dose range below which there is a threshold below which no adverse effects occur (Fig. 1). , no-observed-adverse-effect level [NOAEL]) is not necessarily observed in a given study (see following text). However, for some noncarcinogenic effects, it has not been possible to identify a threshold below which effects do not occur. A well-known example is the neurodevelopmental effects of lead in children [30].

1 Introduction Since its introduction more than 30 years ago, human health risk assessment continues to be an essential component of evaluation and decision making about environmental contaminants to which humans are exposed. This chapter provides an overview of the general risk assessment process, including recent refinements and advances, as well as future directions as currently envisioned. The Toxicology and Risk Assessment Edited by Anna M. Fan, Elaine M. Khan, and George V. Alexeeff Copyright © 2015 Pan Stanford Publishing Pte.

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