What is special about the human brain? by Richard Passingham

By Richard Passingham

The psychological hole among guy and ape is significant. because the mind is the organ of the brain, we needs to imagine that all through evolution there have been alterations within the mind that created this hole. This booklet is a look for these adjustments. Written in a full of life variety, the e-book is a far-reaching and fascinating quest for these issues that make people unique.

The psychological hole --
The anatomy of the mind --
Perception --
Manual ability --
Speech and language --
Cerebral dominance --
Decision-making and making plans --
Reasoning --
Social cognition.

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It may be that chimpanzees fail because they could not make this inference. On these trials the subordinate animals were more likely to go for the food in its new location. But it is going beyond the data to suggest that it can understand what the dominant animal knows. One could reply, of course, that human infants are also unable to understand beliefs. Here we need to introduce the distinction between implicit and explicit understanding. In both experiments, eye movements were monitored and a comparison was made of the time that the children spent looking at each of two boxes.

This method cannot, as yet, be used to study the long-distance connections between cortical areas. It was for this reason that the method of injecting tracers was developed for use with animals, since the tracers are only taken up by cells and not by the underlying white matter. The results are impressively similar for the two methods. In particular one looks forward to studies of regions such as the frontal polar cortex that are poorly developed in monkeys. 2005). However, the method was not optimal for idenfying the detailed connections of each of these neighbouring areas.

The finding that the human temporal lobe is larger than expected reflects a slight reversal of this trend. They suggest that in the evolution of the macaque brain, area 46 differentiated out of this posterior region. As the size of the neocortex increases, there is a tendency for new specialized areas to differentiate out. One way of coping with this problem of design would be to increase the number of processing areas so that these areas are smaller and local connections are maintained within them.

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