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This paintings explores the state of the art in CMOS layout within the context of instant communique for 3G/4G mobile telephony, instant sensor networks, and instant clinical functions. It explores groundbreaking assurance of rising instant applied sciences past average WLAN and 3G mobile phone functions, together with the aptitude merger of silicon and MEMs applied sciences. Chapters written by means of overseas specialists spotlight promising new advances in parts equivalent to physique zone networks, scientific implants, satellite tv for pc communications, car radar detection, and wearable electronics. this article is a wonderful reference for engineers and graduate scholars drawn to instant layout and low-power matters.
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Extra info for Wireless Technologies: Circuits, Systems, and Devices
41a, the capacitance per unit length of a line is increased substantially while leaving the inductance per unit length unaltered. For a uniform transmission line, the product of LC is constant (by the speed of light), whereas for such nonuniform line, this no longer holds, and the waves traveling on these lines are slower, hence the name slow-wave transmission line. Nonuniform transmission lines can be optimized for standing waves. Since in a resonant quarter wave line, the current is ideally zero at the input of the line and maximum at the shorted end, the conductor width should be increased toward the end of the line to minimize the series resistive losses.
The inductor has been simulated and measured separately and the Q factor is between 30 and 40, which shows that the MIM capacitors have comparable Q. An electric shield surrounds the structure to minimize the coupling to Si substrate. This open shield structure is used to minimize eddy current flow. At mm-wave frequencies transmission lines are used extensively. Given the many metal layers offered by a modern CMOS process, there are many options for the realization of transmission lines. Microstrip lines are popular due to the self-shielding layout, preventing electric fields from penetrating the substrate.
32. One LNA was designed with library inductors by simply ignoring the inductance of the parasitic path, whereas a second LNA was designed using ASITIC by assuming a dominant ground current flowing near the inductor. 33, clearly showing a mistuned input match for the first amplifier. One partial solution is to employ transmission lines instead of spiral inductors, since much smaller reactances can be synthesized by simply scaling the length of the transmission line. Furthermore, the ground return current of a transmission line flows along with the signal current, minimizing the impact of coupling to nearby structures and the substrate.