The Engineers Guide to Decoding Encoding by John Watkinson

By John Watkinson

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The composite digital standards sample at four times subcarrier and thus take four samples per cycle. As the sampling clock is subcarrier locked, the composite sampling process is actually a form of demodulation but prior to Y/C separation. Following Y/C separation in a digital filter, the emerging chroma samples are already demodulated by the 4FSc sampling and it is only necessary to selectively invert and matrix chroma samples to produce colour difference signals decoded on the desired axes. The matrixing is needed because digital NTSC samples on the I and Q axes whereas digital PAL samples at +/- 45 degrees to the colour difference axes.

Meshing is also achieved on the fine spectral scale. The fundamental spectral spacing here is 6 1/4 Hz, which is responsible for the eight field sequence. Note that the addition of 25 Hz to the subcarrier frequency does not affect the meshing of the coarse or fine spectra. The 25 Hz component neither causes nor affects the eight field sequence. 6 Colour framing and Sc-H phase Composite video was originally designed purely for transmission and all three systems work well in that role. However, the low temporal frequencies resulting from the deliberate measures to render the chroma invisible caused some difficulties when editing composite video recordings was attempted.

However, this increase cannot be taken too far. Firstly, the cost of the filter rises dramatically with the number of points, particularly when increasing the impulse response window along the time axis requires additional fields of storage which also cause the filter delay to rise. Secondly a large number of points on the time axis can result in the response becoming too sharp in which case ringing will occur due to the filter ripple. This is evident as multiple images of moving objects. Similarly an excessive number of vertical points can result in spatial ringing particularly on horizontal edges between coloured areas.

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