Robustness and Security of Wavelet-Based Watermarking by Meerwald

By Meerwald

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In essence, a MLP implements a function f that maps a vector of input values x to one or more output values y: y = f (x). In constructing a MLP the object is to approximate the underlying (but initially unknown) function f as well as possible. MLPs have universal approximator capabilities [46] in that under general conditions they are capable of mapping any continuous function [110, 191]. In contrast to ordinary least-squares regression models which produce a line, plane or hyperplane depending on the number of independent variables, MLPs which use non-linear transfer functions can produce complex (but smooth) response surfaces with peaks and troughs in n dimensions.

Child 2 is then constructed using the bits not selected for inclusion in child 1 be implemented in a large number of ways. One problem of single (one) point crossover, is that related components of a solution encoding (schema) which are widely separated on the string tend to be disrupted when crossover is applied. One way of reducing this potential problem is to implement twopoint crossover (Fig. 4), whereby two positions on the parent strings are chosen randomly and the segments between the two positions are exchanged.

2 The Multi Layer Perceptron 21 to the MLP. The MLP predicts an output for each input vector, and an error between the predicted and the actual value of the output is calculated. The weights on each connection in the network are then adjusted in order to reduce the error. By altering the weights, the network can place different emphasis on each input, and differing emphasis on the output of each hidden layer node in determining the final output of the network. The knowledge of the network is therefore embedded in its connection weights.

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