Diplomacy And Trade In The Chinese World, 589-1276 (Handbuch by Hans Bielenstein

By Hans Bielenstein

Overlaying the interval from the institution of Sui to the autumn of Southern Sung, this reference paintings for the 1st time provides a whole and with ease arrranged review of China’s diplomatic and exchange relatives with its significant and minor Asian neighbours: continental South Asia and the islands, Japan, Korea, Northeast Asia, Tibet, valuable Asia, West Asia, the center East, and the Hsia, Liao, and Chin States. Basing himself on his yearlong study of chinese language offical histories and old compendia, the writer bargains a wealth of certain details - in translation - on concerns comparable to the products exchanged, the negotiations for peace and alliances, exact missions required via diplomatic etiquette, overseas requests for marriage with chinese language princesses, and so forth. certain emphasis is given to the that means of the so-called “tribute missions”, in fact a disguised kind of alternate.

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Extra info for Diplomacy And Trade In The Chinese World, 589-1276 (Handbuch Der Orientalistik. Vierte Abteilung, China.) (Handbook of Oriental Studies Handbuch Der Orientalistik)

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It follows that the Chinese sources concentrate on the most important missions. They arrived at all times of the year but the preferred seasons were summer and winter. The following table shows the 40 recorded missions by 20-year periods from Lin-yi/Huan-wang to the Sui and T’ang: 94 Correcting Pei-yi to Lin-yi. 40 continental south asia and the islands 587-606: 607-626: 627-646: 647-666: 667-686: 687-706: 707-726: 727-746: 747-766: 767-786: 787-806: 2 2 7 3 2 10 5 4 3 0 2 It can be seen that, even allowing for omissions, relations hardly survived the rebellion of An Lu-shan in 755.

It is obvious that some of these items were luxury articles for the court. Others, such as ores, were commercial goods. The Chinese government matched gifts for gifts, and also payed in copper cash or precious metals. We have seen that in August of 1022, envoys presented official gifts and merchandise evaluated at 1,682 strings of cash, for which they were paid 2000 strings of cash. ) of 1028, the high officials memorialized that the envoys, perhaps privately, had sold fragrant drugs at the price of 3,060 strings of copper cash.

2, 966, envoys presented a bull rhinoceros, two elephant tusks, 20 lengths of white cotton fabrics, various kinds of sarongs, yüeh-no cloth,97 and miscelllaneous aromatic drugs. The queen offered rhinoceros horns, elephant tusks, baroos camphor, and tortoise shells. The envoys presented on their own rhinoceros horns and elephant tusks. The Sung court responded with golden belts, silver vessels, horse trappings, and bedding. 25 of the same year, envoys from the king again brought presents (Sung shih 1:13a; 2: 4a; Sung hui-yao kao 8116:3a; Wen-hsien t’ung-k’ao 332:17a).

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