By Guochang Xu, Yan Xu

Worldwide Positioning approach (GPS/Galileo). it's based mostly on source-code descriptions of the KSGsoft application constructed through the writer on the GFZ in Potsdam. the speculation and algorithms are prolonged and validated for a brand new improvement of a a number of practical GPS/Galileo software program. in addition to the techniques reminiscent of the unified GPS info processing approach and the numerical resolution of the difference equations, in addition to the overall ambiguity seek standards pronounced within the first variation, there are a number of highlights stated. corresponding to the an identical precept and its functions, the idea of self reliant parameterisation, the diagonalisation set of rules, and so forth. Mathematically rigorous, the e-book starts with the fundamentals of coordinate and time platforms and satellite tv for pc orbits, in addition to GPS observables, and offers with subject matters reminiscent of actual affects, commentary equations and their parameterisation, adjustment and filtering, ambiguity solution, info processing, and the choice of perturbed orbits.

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**Extra resources for GPS: Theory, Algorithms and Applications**

**Example text**

Hoffman-Wellenhof et al. ''001813T3 . 18) The approximation is made by letting cos ∆ψ = 1 and sin ∆ψ = ∆ψ for very small ∆ψ. For precise purposes, the exact rotation matrix shall be used. The nutation parameters ∆ψ and ∆ε can be computed by using the International Astronomical Union (IAU) theory or IERS theory: or where argument where l is the mean anomaly of the Moon, l' is the mean anomaly of the Sun, F = L − Ω, D is the mean elongation of the Moon from the Sun, Ω is the mean longitude of the ascending node of the Moon, and L is the mean longitude of the Moon.

Parameters a and e define the size and shape of the ellipse and are called ellipse parameters. The ellipse cuts the equator at the ascending and descending nodes. Polar angle ϕ is counted from the apogee of the ellipse. This can be seen by let ϕ = 0, thus r = a(1 + e). ϕ has a 180 degree difference with the angle ϑ – ω. Letting f = ϑ – ω, where f is called the true anomaly of the satellite counted from the perigee, then the orbit Eq. 27 can be written as r = a(1 − e 2 ) . , the satellite is in the point of perigee, ω = ϑ, ϑ is the polar angle of the perigee counted from the p-axis.

Depending on the elevation of the satellite, the ionospheric effects may be amplified up to three times. The broadcast ionospheric model can remove the ionospheric delay more than 50% (Langly 1998). Fig. 1. 1 · Ionospheric Effects Dual-Frequency Ionosphere Measuring Model In pseudorange measurement only the ionospheric effects depend on the working frequency. 66) where R1 and R2 are the L1 and L2 pseudoranges, and f1 and f2 are the frequencies of the L1 and L2 carriers. Here the random measurement error and un-modelled bias are omitted.