Number Theory and the Periodicity of Matter by Jan C. A. Boeyens, Demetrius C. Levendis

By Jan C. A. Boeyens, Demetrius C. Levendis

The most objective of the e-book is to speak a basic precept to the clinical international. The eventual effect of the subject material is taken into account to be a lot wider than the readership of the initial bills that have been released. The quantity precept at factor is understood to be of large common curiosity and the publication has additionally been written to be obtainable to nonspecialists. the aptitude readership may still expand approach past educational scientists.The discovery defined during this ebook might be of seminal importance, additionally in different fields the place the golden ratio is understood to be of basic value. the obvious connection is with Fibonacci phylotaxis within the learn of botanical progress and the quantity foundation of DNA coding. In one other context it might probably impinge on crystallographic periodicity and the constitution of quasicrystals. those issues are past the scope of this publication and therefore it's all the extra very important that the ability of quantity conception to explain actual structures be disseminated extra broadly.

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5). e. 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, etc. These numbers will √ be encountered again as half the integral solutions (n) to the radical 4n + 1 which generate the parabola that describes nuclide stability and periodicity in terms of the golden ratio. g. (1 + x)4 = 1 + 4x + 6x2 + 4x3 + x4 was known to Arab mathematicians long before the time of Pascal. 1. 2. 5: Geometric representation of tetrahedral numbers. The frame at right shows the centres of touching spheres only. 1: Pascal’s triangle. 0 1 C 1 0 C 1 1 0 1 2 1 3 C 1 3 3 1 i 1 4 6 4 1 1 5 10 10 5 1 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1 1 1 C C i 2 0 C 2 1 C 2 2 C 4 C i 5 Ci 6 C 7 i n forming the sums Cin+1 = Cin + Ci−1 of the two numbers immediately above any given number.

10: Distribution of prime numbers on a spiral. 4. 11: The first 100 prime numbers distributed on a spiral. 4 Fibonacci Numbers Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa in his book Liber Abaci (Book of the Abacus) published in 1202, posed the following question: How many pairs of rabbits will be produced in a year, beginning with a single pair, if in every month each pair bears a new pair which becomes productive from the second month on? 3: Each month some baby pairs grow up and must be added to the number of adult pairs of the previous month.

1 The Farey Sequence An ordered sequence of non-negative reduced fractions between 0 and 1 whose denominators do not exceed the number N was discovered by Farey in 1816. The numerator and denominator of a reduced fraction have no common divider. The number N determines the order of the sequence. 5. 16: Farey sequence of rational fractions. Starting with the first row and reading from right to left 3/7 is identified as the 12th rational fraction. N =1: 0 1 , 1 1 N =2: 0 1 1 , , 1 2 1 N =3: 0 1 1 2 1 , , , , 1 3 2 3 1 N =4: 0 1 1 1 2 3 1 , , , , , , 1 4 3 2 3 4 1 N =5: 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 4 1 , , , , , , , , , , 1 5 4 3 5 2 5 3 4 5 1 A generalized table that serves to order and enumerate all rational fractions, starting with 0/1 and 1/1, is obtained on generating each rational number from two that brace it from above, by separate addition of numerators and denominators of the bracing pair.

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