By Michael I. Mishchenko
This thorough and updated therapy introduces the final formalism of scattering, absorption, and emission of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation via arbitrarily formed and arbitrarily orientated debris. It discusses the relation of the radiative move concept to single-scattering options of Maxwell's equations and describes intimately detailed theoretical tools and laptop codes for calculating scattering, absorption, and emission homes of arbitrarily formed debris.
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Extra resources for Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles
Nt, so that the equation corresponding to Eq. 13) where the units are as given for Eq. 4). q,z, respectively. ) ~ ,Pis ~ not only characteristic of the atomic number The value of ( ~ ( ~ ~ atl appoint 2 of the material present there [as is the case for ( p , , / ~ ) ~ but , ~ ] is , also dependent to some degree upon the material present along the tracks of the electrons which originate at P. This is because radiative energy losses by electrons are greater in higher-Zmaterials, for which K , is larger and K,correspondingly less.
V. , in which at least some nonprimary rays reach the detector-is called broad-beam geometry. , that in which no scattered or secondary particles strike the detector), the corresponding concept of an ideal broad-beam geometry is more difficult to define, and is experimentally less accessible. Nevertheless it will be found useful to establish such a concept for comparison with actual cases. It may be defined as follows: In ideal broad-beam geometry every scattered or secondary unchargedparticle strikes the detector, but only i f generated in the attmuator by a primary particle on its way to the detector, or by a secondary charged particle resultingfrom suth a primary.
2). Thus the kmM is the cx$ectation value of thc energy transferrtd to charged particles per unit mass at a point of interest, including radiative-loss energy but cxcluding energy passedfrom one charged particle to another. The average value of the kerma throughout a volume containing a mass rn is simply the expectation value of the energy transferred divided by the mass, or (Et,),/rn. Kerma can be expressed in units of erg/g, rad, or J/kg. The latter unit is also called the gray (Gy) in honor of L.