To Look Like America: Dismantling Barriers For Women And by Katherine C. Naff

By Katherine C. Naff

To appear Like the US is designed to give a contribution a special standpoint to these attracted to the demanding situations awarded to public area companies -- relatively within the federal zone -- by means of an more and more assorted group. present projections are that the yank team turns into a growing number of diversified over the following decade, forcing employers to answer genuine or perceived boundaries to the participation and development of ladies and minorities of their agencies. This publication offers a method for selecting and taking steps to dismantle such boundaries. It exhibits how empirical measures can establish the level to which such boundaries exist. The measures are utilized to a wide cross-section of the federal civil carrier by utilizing employment, concentration team, and interview information, in addition to responses to surveys administered to consultant samples of federal staff. The research examines the implications that end result whilst boundaries are left unaddressed, and concludes with an evaluation of interventions that may be potent in dismantling boundaries and selling precise participation.

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4313). At the same time, Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1978 transferred responsibility for the federal government's EEO and affirmative action programs to the EEOC. Thus, although not explicitly mandating a specific affirmative action program, Congress nevertheless signaled its intent that full representation was a goal the government should strive to achieve, rather than simply to ensure nondiscrimination. Thus, over four decades, employment policies in the federal government gradually shifted from prohibiting discrimination in federal employment to ensuring the full representation of women and people of color at all grade levels.

Some argue that the theory is meaningless if passive representation does not result in "substantive" (Pitkin 1969) or "active" (Mosher 1968) representation (Salzstein 1979; Thompson 1976). That is, unless a civil servant can be shown to "press for the interests and desires of those whom he is presumed to represent" (Mosher 1968, 12), there is little point in even being concerned with whether the bureaucracy is representative in the passive sense. In the early days of this debate the focus was on administrators' attitudes and values.

In short, there are many reasons to believe that if presidents do make a difference in federal employment practices, the change from the Reagan and Bush administrations of the 1980s and early 1990s to the Clinton administration that entered office in 1993, in particular, could have at least some impact on increasing the representation of women and people of color in the government and on their advancement into senior-level jobs. Clearly there are many environmental variables that affect progress toward achieving a bureaucracy that is representative at all grade levels, including demographic changes, congressional mandates, public opinion, and interest in public service careers.

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